n. term of address for 1. uterine nephew (sister's son). 2. sister's grandchildren. 3. father's sister's son and his children. 4. father's father's sister's son and his children. Encycl: basically the
reciprocal of the relationship to a maternal uncle. That is, a person will address as *ya anyone who
calls him or her as '*aku'. But the relationship
is also passed from father to sons: if B is A's *ya, B's sons will be A's son's *ya.
1. rather; instead. 2. as for; on the other hand. Gramm: contrastive particle following a noun or a pronoun, used for contrasting with a previously mentioned object or a preceding statement. Si ya. Rather this one. Simi ya tiika. Take this one instead/[You should] rather take this one. Gilusii la dosii niimi Gym ya ilatiika. Instead of losing your time you'd better go to Gym. Niika Tanii agun kenii sii ano puri-ripyosiido, ngo ya aya
kechinmarampa ke. The way you write Apatani is very easy to read. I myself don't know yet how to write well. 3. different; another. Tabu
hii lenda ako ya ho lyiguneku. The snake has crawled in another direction. 4.
vi-r. to rot; to become rotten.
vi-r. to slide or glide down.
-ya adjsuff. more; more than. Gramm: comparative suffix added to adjective roots indicating that the subject has a property or quality greater in extent thant that of the object. Kapyoya. More beautiful. Ayayado.
Better. Diipyoyado. More delicious.
-ya vsuff. fight. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the action of the verb results in a quarrel. Diiya. To clash over eating something.
yabin n. 1. (Bot.) Cephalostachium
capitatum, an edible small bamboo species growing at elevations of
approximately 1500-2000 m, the stem of which has a comparatively large diameter.
Syn: yabin byapu. 2. bamboo knife made out of the *yabin variety. Encycl: traditionally used to castrate pigs and to cut the umbilical cord of a newborn.
yabun vi. to be half-burnt or roasted; to be improperly burnt or roasted. Yo hii yabunto la do. The meat is half-burnt. Syn: yabun-yalyun. Yasan si yabun-yalyunto la do. The firewood is half-/improperly burnt.
vi. to be or get heated. Yamu agin ho dulyi ho yabyado. When I seat near the fire I get too heated. yabya-yalya vi. to get burnt. Yamu arun haja ho duto la ali mi yabya-yalyabiine. I was sitting too near to the fire so I got my leg burnt.
to close a door; to shut a door.
yachu See: nyachu.
yachu See: tasin yachu.
made of plaited bamboo or cane splits for storing precious articles (clothes,
to be reduced to or
fallen into partial ruin or decay; to be or get ruined.
yage vi. to break out, as of fire. Short circuit hokii yamu yagene. Fire broke out due to
a short circuit. Var: lyage.
i] n. multipurpose basket made of bamboo or cane which is carried with the help of a strap held on the forehead. Yagii giiye/giihe. One *yagii basket. Sarse
nyimi emo nyimi yagii ho alii adinsiito. Put the millet and the rice
together in the basket! yagii kanii n. person who examines the quality of the contents of
*yagii baskets that are presented as gifts during the marriage ceremony
(*mida), and as such is entitled to receive gifts from the groom's family. eli yagii n. basket containing some newly reaped
rice, maize, two ginger plants, two eggs, a gourd filled with beer and a
hen with her chicks, that the bride carries to her husband's house
during *eli baniin ceremony. paro yagii n. variety of conical
shaped basket. Encycl: *paro yaggii serves as a unit of measure for counting gifts of rice from close relatives during a *Murun, and is equivalent to 1,5 kg, or 6 *kiihe, of unhusked paddy. It
is never used for daily activities nor serves any other purpose. piru yagii n. variety of cane basket used to winnow the threshed paddy to separate it from chaff. puhe yagii n. quantity of
unhusked rice contained in one *puhe yagii basket, equivalent to 2,5 kgs
or 10 *kiihe. As for *paro yagii, it is also used for counting quantities of
rice required from certain relatives during a *Murun. Var: puye yagii.
n. (Bot.) Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, an edible bamboo species larger than the common variety (Phyllotachis bambusoides). Encycl: not found on the Apatani plateau
but mostly in Nyishi inhabited areas. The shoots are eaten and bamboo mugs are
made from the stems, which are usually bent. Syn: yayi.
i] n. axe .
n. bamboo splinter; thinnest splint obtained by cutting a bamboo section longitudinally.
adj. rotten; putrefacted; decomposed; in putrefaction.
adj. (of a person) garrulous.
vi. to befall.
yaju [ya´dʑu] n. ladle made from a dried gourd . yaju piikho n. (Zool.) variety of dragonfly. o yaju [´o: ya´ju] n.
ladle used to take or draw rice/millet beer. miji yaju n. ceremonial ladle, the use of which is restricted to *nyibu during ritual performance altogether with a ceremonial beer container (*miji pinta). yasi-yaju n. large sized ladle made of a bamboo mug with a wooden handle, used to take or draw water stored in bamboo water tubes .
vt. to show; to express. Ngiimi nyabe yakinyo. Don't frown at me!
the sliding door of a traditional Apatani house.
yakhan [ya´xã] n. 1. rice beer vessel made
with cane wicker whose inner surface is coated with rubber. 2. the quantity contained in one *yakhan jar. Encycl:
is traditionally used for measuring the quantity of grain required from close
relatives. It represents the larger amount that can be requested as a contribution
for a *murun, especially from *diiran, *lache and *ari mechu . yakhan banii [ya´xã´ban
i] n. person who carries the rice containers that are presented as gifts during the marriage ceremony
(*mida) and as such is entitled to
receive gifts from the groom's family. yakhan bemurnii n. ritual performed by the priest on the inaugural day of *Myoko, before rice/millet beer is handled. yakhan-khannge [ya´xã´xãŋe] n:num.
one *yakhan basket (or the equivalent quantity). diiran yakhan n. traditional
unit of measure corresponding approximately to 35 kilogramms of
unhusked rice, which is expected as a contribution from a
married woman's *diiran on certain occasions such as *murun. lache yakhan n. traditional
unit of measure corresponding approximately to 25 kilogramms of
unhusked rice, which is expected as a contribution from a
married woman's *mechu on certain occasions such as *murun. mechu yakhan n. traditional
unit of measure corresponding approximately to 15 kilogramms of
unhusked rice, which is to be given by a
married woman's *mechu, esp. for a *murun.
n. small stick;
twig; wood splinter. Yakho ako
nyarto. Make one bamboo stick! [i.e. out of
that bamboo stem]. Yakho
mi khilii-khiikhabiido. The stick has been inserted the wrong way (or in the wrong position/at a wrong position). Yakho-khoye. One stick. dachan yakho n. slim iron stick, a
common tool used by Apatani blacksmiths. yo yakho n.
n. remaining residue of a rotten or decomposed thing.
n. rock; stone. yalan puro n. boulder.
n. red meat (boneless). Etym: from *aya, 'flesh/meat' and *lanchan, 'red'.
yalan n. small coarse basket
(*yalan) usually made of *tajer, into which an egg is inserted. Made to swing as a pendulum, it is used by the priest to determine what particular ritual should be
performed. Syn: yalan piiro . yalan biniin n. swinging of a *yalan basket.
n. (Zool.) variety of hairy caterpillar.
yali n. (Zool.) fox. Syn: yali aki.
n. 1. shadow; figure cast by the sun. 2. reflection; figure cast by a mirror. 3. soul. Miyu ka
soul. yalo bi vcn. to echo or echo back. yasi-yalo n. reflection; figure cast in water.
yalo n. slight crack, esp. in a glass or mirror. Kere talo si yalo bidonii ayumapa tachenedo. There is a
slight crack running along the mirror, it may soon break. yalo bar vcn. to have cracks.
Siika mirror si yalo bardoku. This mirror has got cracks. yalo barniin n. cracking (esp. in a glass or mirror).
vt. to calm down; to calm someone down. Tumalyi hoka
yarlonii, ngiika ane. It's my mother who calmes me down when I burst out in anger.
n. traditional procedure to resolve unsettled disputes
between two individuals, involving the slaughtering of cattle in front of the
opponent's house alternatively, as well as, in certain cases, the ritual destruction
of prestige valuables. Syn: yalu lisunii. yalu lisudu vcn. to challenge an opponent by resorting to a
*yalu; to solve a dispute by resorting to a *yalu.
adj. fashionable/stylish, as said of someone who keeps himself/herself clean to attract others.
n. poor person; pauper.
n. mother; mum
(familiar). Usage: Hari.
yamu [´jamu] n. fire. yamu michan n. burning coal/ember of wood. yamu milyo n. flame. yamu miiri n. charcoal; embers. Yamu miiri mi pyodu la pyobyasiitii. I got burnt while
seizing embers with the tongs. yamu-mutu n. half-burn firewood, or firewood that is in the process of being burnt. Hiika yamu-mutu mi liiliito. Put that piece of wood into the fire! yamu pami vcn. to light a fire. yamu
pami-nanii n. material used for lighting a fire.
yamu par vcn. to make/prepare a fire. yamu parge vcn. to start a fire by striking something that produces sparks, as a flint. yamu parge-nanii n. material used to start a fire by striking something that produces sparks, as a flint.
adj. (of colour) ashy.
n. split bamboo rope.
yamyo n. variety
of body colour pattern for mithun cows. Describes an animal of overall
black coat with a broad white patch running down the back from the head
to the tail. See: tamyo.
-yan vsuff. gradually; one after the other. Gramm: temporal suffix indicating that an event occurs through multiple iterations
of the same activity denoted by the verb over a continuous period of time.
n. variety of small bamboo, particularly abundant in Talle Valley. The smallest bamboo species of that area .
n. mother; mum
(familiar). Syn: yama.
n. leaf. Var: yanu; anii; sanii. Yanii taye/tahe. One leaf. niiji yanii n. leaf of *niiji sanii, used in beer brewing and various rituals. yanii-yaso laniin n. collection of *niiji leaves and *taser cane from respective community forests before the commencement of main events of *Myoko festival.
n. 1. state of being decayed. 2. process of decaying.
n. slide; swift downward.
yanko patii. See: patii.
adj. 1. calm; quiet; peaceful; patient. Aba ka hadii mi Ane yanudopa lulobiineku. The mother calmed down the father's anger. 2. slow. yanuja adj. slowest. Manu moka patan
ajin agin ho ter yanujapa datii. Within her agricultural labour group too, Manu was the slowest. yanuya adj. slower. yanu-yamya adj. moderate (in
drinking). yanu-yanu adv. calmly; slowly. Alyi atu dorhinhe, lembo ho yanu-yanu guboladone. Three piglets were calmly crossing the street.
yapa n. young man. Mo yapa ho, ... When he was young... yapa atan n.
young men; youngsters. Lemba daka yapa atan hii. The village youngsters. yapa bulyan n. junior section of a *bulyan body. See: bulyan.
mortar used to grind paddy and millet by means of a wooden pestle .
yapin [ya´pĩ] n. nose. yapin ayi n. (Med.) epistaxis. yapin hukho n.
pin used to puncture noses of women in former times. yapin hulo n. smoked slice
of cane traditionally worn by adult women as nose plugs. Encycl: the stuffing of nose plugs was once a distinctive mark of the Apatani women. The practice has gradually fallen into decline from the 70's onwards. Yapin-pinnge. One nose. yapin-pinyan n. (Anat.) bridge/spine of the nose. yapin-yaru n. (Zool.) earwig, an insect having a pair of pincerlike appendages protruding from the rear of the abdomen.
yapor n. variety
of body colour pattern for mithun bulls. Describes an animal having an
overall black coat with large white patches across the body through the back. See: tapor.
yapu n. variety
of body colour pattern for mithuns. Describes an animal of
overall white coat. See: tapu; punya.
yapu-yalan n. one of the highest and most expensive types of *murun requiring the slaughtering of cattle and pigs and a distribution of meat to every household of the Apatani Valley. Var: yapu-yalun.
n. sky. Yapun hoka jomu si ano kapyodo. Clouds in the sky are very
beautiful. yapun geniin
n. thunder. yapun uyi n. literally 'sky spirit/god', name of a divinity residing in the sky who is believed to control rains. Also describes an agrarian festival organized just before the harvest, aimed at propitiating *Yapun so that hailstorms do not damage the crops.
n. (Agr.) winnower made of bamboo or cane framework used to
blow the chaff from grain by a current of air . yapyo ngoro nphr. large winnower. Yapyo-pyoye/pyohe. One winnower.
yar- class. outer layer of split bamboo poles. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for counting layers of split bamboo poles. yarre, yarnye, yarhinnge, yarpe, yarngohe, yarkhe, yarkanuhe, yarpinye, yarkoahe, yarlyanhe 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 layers of split bamboo poles.
yar vt-r. to persuade someone, esp. in order to settle a dispute between individuals.
n. variety of loosely woven cane
basket used by males for carrying firewood. Syn: yasan-yara. Yara raye/rahe. One *yara basket.
vt. (of a plural subject) to persuade someone collectively.
n. loincloth of
cotton traditionally worn by grown-up males to hide private parts. See: ahu; sarbe.
vt. to persuade; to convince, esp. in a mediation.
yarkun n:num. one layer of split bamboo pole. Gramm: when enumerating only, i.e. without reference to a particular object, as in school. When referring to a particular object, *yarre is used instead. yarkun-yarnyi n:num. layers of split bamboo arranged to the size of a tin sheet and piled one over the other. This was used in place of corrugated tin in former times.
vt. (of a plural subject) to persuade someone together/collectively.
vt. to calm down
someone from his/her anger; to ease tension. Hadiilyi hoka
yarlonii, ngiika ane. It's my mother who calmes me down when I'm angry.
n. negotiation. Syn: yarlyan-yarda.
one who mediates (unspecified); mediator.
n. 1. act of mediating or persuading. 2. state of mediating or persuading.
adj. easy to convince. Ant: yarru.
yarre n:num. one layer of split bamboo pole. Gramm: used when referring to a particular object. When enumerating, as in school, *yarkun is used instead.
adj. hard to convince. Ant: yarpyo.
n:qual. (of two or more layer of split bamboo poles) 1. distinct; different. 2. one set for each.
Gramm: post-nominal qualifying noun.
upper portion of a wall or door. Encycl: during *Myoko festival, some rice powder (*yatan) is sprinkled in cross motifs on this area of the
façade of the house, following *mepi ritual.
vt. to convince people one by one. Syn: yarsi-yarsi.
n. (Bot.) orange mushroom or lichen growing around
bamboo nodes. Syn: bije yartan; bije nyanyi .
yaru n. ear. Yaru-ruye/ruhe. One ear. yaru lachan n. variety of small earring originally obtained from Tibet. yaru pinmi n. (Anat.) ear lobe. Syn:
yaru-rupin. yaru-rubi adj. deaf. yaru-rubu n. (Anat.) ear drum. Var: yaru-ruye. yaru-ruhi n. (Anat.) ear wax. yaru-rupin
n. earring, esp. made of *taser yaso. yaru-rutu n. (Anat.) upper part
of the ear. yaru ubu n. ear percing; hole in the ear, through which an earring can be hung. rubi yaru n. right ear. ruchi yaru n. left ear.
(Bot.) general term for wild taro or yam species. Encycl: within this category the Apatanis establish a basic distinction between two varieties, namely *yapun yaru and *yasi yaru. Var: yeru; yarii. yapun yaru
n. edible, relatively big variety of wild yam whose leaves are used to feed pigs. Var: yapun yeru. yasi yaru n. (Bot.) Water Hyacinth (Eichhomia crassipes). Var: yasi yeru.
yaru See: yeru.
yaru adj. difficult to rot or decompose.
yasan [ja´sã] n. firewood. Yasan poye. One wooden log.
bundle of firewood. Yasan
bundle of small pieces of firewood. yasan nyatu n. traditional rest place on the way/path used to collect
firewood. yasan sale n. wood that is undried or unfit for burning purpose. yasan tapan n. (Bot.) moss. yasan tapan tayin n. (Bot.) lichen, in general. yasan yara [ja´sã jara] n. loosely woven cane basket used by males for carrying firewood. yasan yayin n. rotten wood. bunii yasan nphr. crackling firewood.
yasi [´jasi] n. water. yasi anii n. (Zool.) variety of water beetle of the Dytiscidae family
, regarded as an
edible item by the Apatanis . Usage: Hari, Bulla, Hija. Var: tasi anii. Usage: Hong. Var: tasi nanii. Usage: Diibo. yasi buri n. (Zool.) variety of water snake. yasi chotin n. waterfall. yasi harkhii n. whirlpool. yasi
bamboo container used to carry
fetched water in olden days. yasi paje n. (Zool.) general term for water birds. Includes not only ducks, but also many kinds of wading birds such as herons,
egrets, sandpipers, etc. yasi pari n. (Zool.) Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis). yasi
(Zool.) Black Stork (Ciconia nigra). yasi siili n. water that accumulates due to absence of outlet. yasi-yaju n. large sized ladle made of a bamboo mug with a wooden handle, used to take or draw water stored in bamboo water tubes. yasi-yalo n. reflection; figure cast in water. yasi-yamu n. basic necessities (literally ‘water and fire'). Ngunuka diinan-tanannii, yasi-yamu pa sali-sapa mi pako so ngunuka Ziro si alo lolinlyi karmyanja mi ano karuyalado.
When we cut forests for basic necessities or for
food, day after day we're making our Ziro place become more ugly. yasi-yaru n. (Bot.) Water Hyacinth (Eichhomia crassipes) .
vr. to wash
one's hands. Usage: Hari.
n. 1. general term for cane and rattan. 2.
rope made of cane/rattan. takhe yaso n. variety of hard cane used for various rough works such as binding components used in roof framing or flooring. Also used for making ropes (*boha) that are wrapped around ritual masts (*babo). tapi yaso n. Plectocacomia himalayana, a cane species used for various purposes such asbinding purposes in construction of building. Var. tarpi yaso, tarpin yaso. taser yaso n. Calamus acanthospathus, a variety of soft cane/rattan used to make various artefacts such as leg ornaments (*ali tarin) or ear rings (*yaru ruping).
yata n. variety of body colour pattern for mithun cows. Describes an animal having an overall black or dark-brown coat with large white patches on the sides. See: tata. yata-yabin n. variety
of body colour pattern for mithun cows. Describes an animal having an
overall black or dark-brown coat with large white patches on the sides and a white head. See: tata-tabin.
n. rice flour. Encycl: rice flour is prepared by pounding the rice soaked in water for a night. yatan huniin n. rice flour pounding.
yati See: yatii.
n. Apatani traditional
rain shield. Encycl: made of two rectangular pieces held together by long loops of
twisted bamboo rope. Each part consists of two layers of cane lattice,
sandwiching a layer of leaves of Cinnamomum tree between them, whose edges are
tightly bound together. The rain shield is held by means of bamboo straps
resting on the forehead. Niika yatii mi
inka lochi so hapito. Hang up your raincoat on that wall hanger so that it will dry out! Var: yati. Usage: Hija .
yau n. variety of body colour pattern for mithun cows. Describes an animal resembling a wild gaur (Bos gaurus), i.e. having a black coat except for the lower part of the legs which is white, often also with dark brown hair on the forehead. See: tau.
yayi See: yahi.
vi. to scramble down; to slide down.
vsuff. dented. Gramm: result suffix indicated that something becomes dented as a result of the action indicated by the verb.
vsuff. was; were. Gramm: temporal suffix added to existential verbs *da, *do or *du to mark the past tense. Hapoli so miyu giije-giije dado daye. There was a huge number of people in Hapoli. Piita biije duye. Birds were in great numbers [there]. Apin nyimapa yo adin doye. There was no rice, only meat
was available. Nunuko mi duye ha? Was there anyone at your place? Var: -e.
vsuff. sufficient. Gramm: predicate adjectivalizer. Derives an adjective with the basic meaning 'sufficient for'.
yeru See: yaru.
-yi vsuff. down; downward. Gramm: directional
suffix indicating that the subject moves in an downward direction in bringing about the event identified by the verb. Ant: -cha.
yilin See: ayi-yilin.
vt. to shed skin, as of a snake. Tabu alyo yiludu. The snake sheds its skin.
-yin vsuff. all together. Gramm: collaborative suffix
indicating of a plural subject that all participants are performing the
action identified by the verb together or at the same time.
yo [´yo:] n. meat. yo aso n. rectangular piece of preserved pig meat . yo bade n. ceiling
rack. Syn: lankha; khachi . yo kanii n. person who examines the quality of meat during certain rituals, esp. those related to marriage (*mida). yo kheniin n. meat distribution, esp. during a *murun. yo lankhan See: yo bade. yo panii n. variety of Apatani dish. yo pater n. cane netted
case for storing meat shares such as *yo aso. yo sampya n. wooden meat tray. yo tapin n. (Zool.) meat maggot. yo tardu [´yo: tardu] n. lidded
bamboo tube used for storing meat. yo tarko n. person in charge of the cutting and distribution of meat of slaughtered animals, esp. during a *murun. yo yakho n.
skewer. hulyi yo n. variety of Apatani meat dish. yo sankho n. [´yo: ´saŋko] dried meat.
vi-r. (by horses, cows, etc.) to gallop.
class. type; kind. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for varieties, types, kinds. Syn: lyo. yohe/yoye,
yonye, yohinnge, yope, yo'ngohe, yokhe,
yokanuhe, yopinye, yokoahe, yolyanhe.
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 varieties/types/kinds. Agun yonye. Two types of language.
class. night; colour. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for counting 1. nights, construed as a full night cycle 2. colours. Syn: lyo.
yohe/yoye, yonye, yohinhe, yope, yo'ngohe, yokhe,
yokanuhe, yopinye, yokoahe, yolyanhe.
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 nights/colours. Ayo
yoye, Manu hende-hende hela, imitalyiku la
biidi ako hempatii. One night, Manu kept thinking over and
over, and as she was about to sleep she imagined a plan.
do not [do]. Gramm: Prohibitive suffix occuring at the end the predicate suffix chain, used to express the negative form of imperative. Indicates that the speaker exhorts, orders or requests the addressee not to perform the action denoted by the verb. Diiyo.
Don't eat! Hiitampa ngiimi
kadiyo. Don't stare at me like that! Syn: -yo ka. Ant: -to.
vsuff. become mixed. Gramm: result suffix indicating that two or more things become mixed or combined as a result of the action denoted by the verb. Syn: -yo...-chi.
vi. (by horses, cows, etc.) to gallop/jump across.
you cannot [do]. Gramm: negative form of the permissive imperative modal suffix, formed by combining the negative imperative marker *-yo with the permissive particle *ka. Used to indicate that the speaker does not allow the addressee to perform the action indicated by the verb. No
luyoka. You don't speak! (i.e. you are not allowed/permitted to speak). Ant: -tiika.
n:time middle of
the night, midnight. Syn: yolyan liipa. yolyan liipa ho advphr. in the middle of the
vi. to drown. Usage: Bulla. Var: phua. Usage: Hija.
yopo n. basket carried by hand used by women for carrying rice or vegetables. yopo-pohe n:num. one *yopo basket. Var: yopo poye. formal presentation of gifts Usually
consists of a Tibetan prayer bell (*maji) and meat. hiijan yopo n. basket containing various pieces of meat that is
the bride's parents to the children
of a newly married couple during the wedding ceremony (*mida).
class. row. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for lines of aligned objects such as rows of fence, mountain ridges, etc. yore, yornye, yorhinhe, yorpe,
yorngohe, yorkhe, yorkanuhe, yorpinye, yorkoahe, yorlyanhe.
n. slope. Syn: lenchin.
yorbu n. hill. Ngiinyi
yorbu ho chabasiisa. Let's climb the hill together!
yorda ayuniin n. long
chanting by the priest and other persons sitting in *dokho achan and *nyimii
ingya taking place the day following cattle sacrifice in a *murun, lasting from morning to evening. The chant narrates the
creation of the universe, mankind and living creatures.
yordin n. uppermost part of a hill/mountain. Etym: from adin, 'head'. Ant: yorko.
num. one (row,
esp. of fence). Syn: yorkun. yorepa adv. 1. in one
row. 2. as one; with one voice; unanimously.
n. ridge. Yorgan-yore. One ridge.
vi. to step (usually softly, as opposed to a heavy step); to walk without making a noise. Ant: chadin.
yorhan See: yorsan.
yorje n. best variety of *yorkhun. yorje salyo n. outer cover of *yorje seed .
yorko n. lowermost part of a hill/mountain. Ant: yordin.
n. (Bot.) Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum
sp., possibly Z. armatum or Z. acanthopodium). Var: yorkhun. Syn: yorkhan-yorje. Var: yorkhun-yorje. siitii yorkhun
n. variety of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum
sp.) bearing relatively large-sized berries. Etym. literally "elephant*yorkhun.
yorkhun See: yorkhan.
(Bot.) Toothache Plant; Paracress (Acmella oleracea), a flowering herb whose
small leaves are eaten . Syn: yorkhun. naru yorkhun n. variety of *yorkhun.
n. private garden located at some distance from the house for
growing vegetables, chillies, millet, etc. Yorlu
ngoro. A vast garden. yorlu-balu n. gardens. See: balu.
n. dried chilly
powder. yormii sudu n. bamboo mortar with a pointed bottom for grinding chilly.
raw or green chilly. Var: yorhan. Usage: Hija. Syn: tero yorsan. Var: tero yorhan. Usage: Hija.
dried chilly. Syn: tero yorsin.
n:qual. (of two or more colours) 1. distinct; different. 2. one set for each.
Gramm: post-nominal qualifying noun.
n:qual. (of two or more types, kinds, varieties) 1. distinct; different. 2. one set for each.
Gramm: post-nominal qualifying noun. Syn: lyosa,
yoyu ahi n. (Bot.) variety of red, edible berry.
adj. 1. (of slopes, hills, etc.) having a smooth carving shape or
movement; undulating; wavy 2. (of speech; song, etc.) having a level of tone not falling or
rising abruptedly. Syn: yoyu-yoyu.
yu part. focusing or emphatic particle. Gramm: focusing or emphatic particle used in interrogative sentences. Marks any word to which the speaker wishes to draw attention by following it. Mo no yu inne nii? Where did he/she go? Inka ude atan si nii miikopa yu? What are those houses for? Insi nii yu miido nii? What's happening here?
Hu yu momi miine nii. Who (is the one who) beat him? Bus niida harne yu ha? When does the bus leave? Mo anyi niimpa yu khedo nii? Why are both of them crying? Niibo yu moka lumyoniin hii? Which one is the one reserved by him?
vt-r. to stretch out one's hand.
vt-r. to chant *ayu songs. Mo dumolyi ho biisi ayu yutii. He used to sing ayus when relaxing/resting.
yubo vt. to
extend one's hand across.
yugyan [jugjã] n. altar or ritual ground, in general. Syn: agyan. yugyan ato n. owner of the plot of land where one particular *yugyan is located. yugyan danyi tuniin n. ritual performed during *Myoko at the house of one *Myoko yugyan ato, acompanied by invocations to the sun and moon. Encycl: on
this occasion one of the hearts from the slaughtered pigs is
boiled in an earthen pot and examined. myoko yugyan n. ritual
clan centre where pigs are sacrificed in great numbers of the fourth day of *Myoko festival. Encycl: a peach-tree (*takun) stands in the center the ritual ground. Clan members from different places
who join together on that occasion and partake of the blood of the same sacrificial pigs are considered as siblings and may not intermarry .
vt. to put one's
hand in (e.g. in one's pocket). Ant: yulin.
vt. to move one's hand laterally to the opposite side of the body.
vt. to take one's hand out (e.g. out of one's pocket). Ant: yuha.