ta-class. piece of flat object; sheet; volume. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for thin, flat objects or materials such as sheet of paper, books, etc. taye/tae, tanye, tahinnge, tape, ta'ngohe, takhe,
takanuhe, tapinye, takoahe, talyanhe 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 sheet(s)/pieces of flat object(s). Etym: from *pata,
ta part. more; again; too; also. Gramm: additive particle usually following verbs, having the basic sense 'too', 'also, 'in addition to''. Mo, Obing hiilyan, luju-lumyo ayado, ano sola-ngarladu ta. He is a nice fellow, polite and humorous, just like Obing.
Tallo ka agin ho aki halindo ta. Aki has come out along with Tallo. Opi Itanagar tone ta. Opi too went (down) to Itanagar.
ta [´ta:] vt-r. 1. to hear something; to listen to something. 2. to listen to someone. 3. to listen to someone and obey; to obey.
ta [´ta] vt-r. to cut, chop, split or crack something with some tool having an extended handle, such as an axe or a hoe. When referring to the cutting of a log, implies that the cutting is done lengthwise, as opposed to *kar. Kiidi mi tato. Work the soil
(with a hoe)! Yasan tato! Chop the wood!
ta [ta] vt-r. to dig; to turn the soil over deeply, as
with a hoe. Kiidi tato! Dig a hole in the soil!
vt-r. to bite, as of a snake.
taSee: apya ta.
-ta vsuff. flattened. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something is flattened as a result of the action denoted by the verb.
tabavt. (of a plural subject) to cut together (with an axe or a hoe).
tabavt. (of a plural subject) to hear or listen together.
tabavt. (of a plural subject) to dig together.
tabe [´ta´be] n. (Bot.) sugar cane plant (Saccharum spp.) Var: tiibe. Syn: tabe sanii. tabe akho [´ta´be ´a´xo] n. sugarcane. Var: tiibe akho.
tabivt. to cut (with an axe or a hoe) on someone else's behalf/for someone.
tabivt. to dig on someone else's behalf/for someone.
tabin-talinadj. 1. naked, as of a person; nude; without clothing. 2. stark, as of a landscape; bare. Syn: tabin-talin.
tabinvt. to cut together jointly (esp. with an axe or a hoe).
tabovt. 1. to cut (with an axe or a hoe) along with someone. 2. to help someone cut something (esp. with an axe or a hoe).
tabovt. 1. to dig along with someone. 2. to help someone dig something.
tabovt. 1. to cut (with axe or hoe) across. 2. to move across to cut (with an axe or a hoe).
tabu [´ta´bu] n. (Zool.) snake, in general.This category encompasses not only snakes, but also monitor lizards. gyoyi tabun. (Zool.) Common Indian Monitor (Varanus bengalensis), a large lizard with an elongated neck an a forked tongue. tabu choka hamann. (Bot.) unidentified vegetable species (lit. 'snake spit'). tabu
ngiiyi n.(Zool.) Snake Head Fish (Channa sp., esp. Ch. stewartii and Ch. orientalis). tabu niimin. (Bot.) variety of forest plant bearing a very distinctive inflorescence (or spathe) that resembles an arum flower. Usage: Hari. Var: tabu riibi. Usage: Hija. . tabu sominn. (Zool.) Blindworm, a variety of legless lizard.
tabu [´ta´bu] n. (Zool.) bedbug (Cimex sp.). Syn: pepu tabu.
tabu-taru adj. grainy/pimple-like, as of an appearance on skin. Yana
tabu-taru dado nyimo ho powder negiitolado. Yana rubbed some powder on
her face that made her skin appear somewhat grainy.
tabyon. (Bot.) Chimonobambusa callosa, a variety ofbamboo whose young shoots are edible. The nods
are studded with short thick conical spines.
tabyon. temporary house.
tachan n. (Zool.) 1. generic term for wood boring insects and their worm-like larvae, including termites.2. Hairless worms in general. tachan-tiyon. (Zool.) generic term for pests,
comprising insects in general and their larvae.
vt. to cut/strike so as to divide something with an axe or a hoe; to divide or break something by cutting it (esp. by means of an axe or a hoe). 2.
vi. to break; to crack. Kere talo
si yalo bidonii ayimapa tachenedo. There is a
slight crack running along the mirror, it may soon break. tachehen. part or half of what has been cut with an axe or a hoe.
tachin. (Bot.) variety of cane having a very large stem, used esp. by the Nyishis.
tachinvt. to know; to have heard before. Ngo tachinkuma. I have never heard [of it].
tachinvt. to know how to cut with an axe or a hoe.
tader n. (Zool.) intestinal worm (generic). aki tader (Zool.) n. tapeworm of dogs.
tadern. (Bot.) Pleioblastus simonii, one of the strongest bamboo species, found only in Talle Valley. The shoots usually sprout in April .
tadervt. to make something clear through hearing or asking; to understand (what one hears). Ngo taderlama I don't understand [lit 'I am not able to hear clearly' (what the person is saying)]. Ant: tamur. See: hender.
tadinvt. to cut something deliberately esp. with a axe or a hoe.
tadinvt. to agree. tadinsiiniinn. agreement
tadin vt. to combine two or more things so as to make a pile. Khu emo
nyi mi niti emo nyi mi tadinsiito. Mix the old rice with new rice
together into a single heap!
1. adj. yellow, in colour. Usage: Hija, Diibo, Dutta. See: pilan 2. n. variety of small yellow beads. tado tasann. variety of yellow bead necklace worn by females .
taduvt. to damage/destroy something by cutting it with an axe or an hoe.
tagen. (Bot.) variety of wild tree.
tagevt. to listen attentively; to obey. School ho teacher ka lukonii mi ayapa tagegiito. Listen attentively to the teacher at school!
tagevt. to hit something with an axe or a hoe and get stuck, intentionally or unintentionally. Ngiika yahii mi yasan ho tageto la do. I drove my axe in the log.
tagi n.(Agr.)sickle used for cutting rice or millet.
to take someone along with oneself to hear/listen to something. 2. to teach someone something (through hearing). 3.to learn from
someone (by listening).tagii-kagiivt.
1. to teach someone something. 2. to learn from someone.
tagiivt. to take someone with oneself to cut something with an axe or a hoe; to take someone as partner in an cutting activity. Tatu mi more ho ingiila yasan tagiihe. Take Tatu along with you to the forest and make him cut wood.
tagin tajen. (Bot.) variety of grass or herbaceous plant.
tagon. (Bot.) variety of tree found outside the valley, particularly in Tago area (Nyishi belt) . tago alin. wooden tricycle used by children as a toy in olden days. The wheels were made from a *tago trunk section as it has a natural hole at its center.
tagovt. 1. to miss to hear. Ngo moka speech mi tagotoku. I missed to hear his speech. 2. to ignore someone's word or speech. Taki ka luniin mi tagosiito. Ignore what Taki says! Syn: tapa.
tagur enson. (Bot.) variety of weed. Encycl: easily identifiable as it grows taller than rice and stands boldly alone amongst rice plants in rice fields .
tagya See: tagyan.
tagyavt. to hear uncorrectly. Ngo Yami ka coffee kuniin mi tagyabiito la tea ya bito. I didn't understand that Yami was asking coffee and I gave her tea instead.
tagya vt. to catch hold of someone or lean against someone, as of a person (or an animal) who cannot stand on his own feet/legs. Ngiimi Opi tagyabiido. Opi is holding herself steady against me to stand up on her feet. Ngunuka aki pogo ngiimi tagyabiido. Our dog Pogo is holding me to stand up on his hind legs.
tagyan adj. unfathomable; boundless; immeasurable; infinite.Tagyan henter ela, ngiika ajin mi ngo siitanpa business partnership ho cheat miilyido la hemato. I'm immensely upset, I never thought that my friend would cheat me in our business partnership. tagyan-miido n. 1. outsiders, aliens, other peoples, applying mainly to non-Apatanis. Tagyan miido kane mingo tamopa du masii jalo... Even if I'm not as rich and strong as other peoples... 2. world; universe. Ngiika discovery miiniin simi tagyan-miido chinjabiidoku. My discovery is known to the entire world. Siichan miido doter ho no kane kapyo kapa kuma. There is no one as beautiful as you in the whole world.
tahin. (Zool.) variety of snake of overall black colour, possibly Darjeeling Slendersnake/Blackbelly Worm-eating Snake (Trachischium
tahi-tammiadj. fastidious about drinking.
tahinn. cowrie sword strap/belt (of a *chiri). Var: tayin.
tahiivt. to ask a question. tahii-takhevt. to ask around; to consult.
tahiiadj. hard of hearing, as of an old person.
tahun. (Zool.) variety of carnivorous mammal resembling an otter, having a brown fur.
yamun. (Zool.) firefly. Var: tayu yamu.
tai belann. (Bot.) variety of acacia tree used to make hedges and spears .
tai koya See: tayin koya.
tai tarpinSee: tayin tarpin.
tai siitinSee: tayin siitin.
taje-tanye vi. to scuttle; to scurry; to act in a hustling manner; to run hastily.
tajevt. to hear the truth or reality; to believe or trust what one hears. A: No kachinma po? Mo Tubin nyan. B: Tubin iin? Ngo tajema ka ah. Mopa iche heter kama. A: Do you recognize him? He's Tubin. B: Is he? I don't believe! He doesn't even look like him.
tajevt. to ask or inquire repeatedly.
tajern. (Bot.) variety of edible bamboo or bamboo-like species. Encyl: plays a prominent role in Apatani mythology and rituals. A piece of tajer is also worn in hair by the priest (*nyibu) while performing a *murun. tajer yason. rope made out of *tajer plant, usually used for binding purposes in roof-making or during rituals.
n. variety of bamboo, funnel-shaped fish trap. See: takhun.
taji ale adj. very thin.
of body colour pattern for mithun bulls. Describes an animal of
overall black coat with a long, narrow white patch on the back. See: kenjo.
taju-tamyon. way/manner of cutting with an axe or a hoe.
takavt. 1. to hear; to listen. 2. to ask; to ask a question. Mo ngiimi noho dadu, nii miidu, hiila takane. He asked me where I am now, what I am doing and all. Kago nolo school ingiikochi
takado. Kago asked to be taken to school by you.
takasiiniinn. questioning; consultation.
take n. infectious agent or germ, in general. Var: tiike. Syn: take-tiyo. take biriin. bamboo
tube used to suck human blood. Encycl: in olden days it was commonly believed that
removing an excess of blood could help curing various diseases. The
affected parts were submitted to the suction of several of these bamboo
bloodletting devices. The blood oozed into the tube and the healer then
came to collect it, sucking it out and spitting it into a bowl.
takern. 1. star. 2. spotted, as of a mithun bull coat or a wild animal fur. For mithun bulls, denotes an animal having an overall white body with many black patches which, seen from a distance, look like a starry sky. Hogya taker. Spotted leopard. See: gyonya.
(Zool.) Water Strider or Skater, an aquatic insect having long slender
legs with which it supports itself on the surface of water. Var: sukun-sankhii. Usage: Hija.
takin. (Bot.) ginger (Zingiber officinale). kichi takin. variety of small-sized ginger containing lot of fibres, used as medicine and as ingredient
in various rituals. taki yaniin. ginger leaves, used in various food preparations. Var: taki anii.
takivt. to bend something slightly.
takinn. cowrie shell. Encycl: cowries are only used by the Apatanis to decorate *chiri (Tibetan sword) carrying handles.
takon. filth; dirt of the body.
takovt. to dig a hole or a trench; to open (the ground); to open up the earth.
takolaro n. variety of white hard stone that produce sparks when struck with another similar stone; flint used to start a fire.
taku [taku] n. (Bot.) cucumber (Cucumis sativus). taku sanii n.cucumber plant. Dree hoka taku babibo hii, ngiika ane. It's my
mother who brings cucumber for me during the Dree festival. Var: takhu. Usage: Hija. taku-kulin.
cucumber seeds. taku kheniinn. distribution of cucumbers to participants during *Dree festivities. taku rilan. cucumber tendril, a twisting, threadlike outgrowth by which the plant grasps an object or a plant for support.
taku-tamun. bamboo section used as an imitation of a human phallus during a *penii procession. Also describes the comic dance performed by young males during a *penii procession . taku tamu mii vcn. to perform a variety of comic
dance with a sexual connotation, as done by young males participating in a *penii procession in various attires and costumes.
takun [ta´kũ] n. peach; peach tree. takun sanii [ta´kũ´sa:ni] n. (Bot.) peach tree (Prunus persica). Encycl: the peach tree, which normally flowers in mid-March, plays a significant
role at the time of *Myoko festival. One specimen is planted at every
clan ritual centre (*yugyan). takun apu [ta´kũ a´pu:] n. peach flower. takun ahin. peach fruit .
takunn:num. (of flat and thin objects, or materials) one. Gramm: used when enumerating only, i.e. without reference to a particular object, as in school. Otherwise *tahe/*taye is used instead. See: ta.
takunvt. (of a plural subject) to listen or hear collectively.
takunvt. (of a plural subject) to cut collectively; to cut together (with an axe or a hoe).
takun putun. type of *murun ranking immediately
above *runser, requiring
the sacrifice of several mithuns and a distribution to every household of the donor's own Myoko group, also marked by a procession (*penii) throughout the corresponding villages. (as, in the case of a
donor from Reru village, throughout Tajang, Kalung and Hari).
See: runtii; runser; yapu-yalan.
takhavt. to cut
wrongly; to fail to cut (with an axe or a hoe).
takhe [´ta´xe]n. (Zool.)
human head louse. Variant: takhii. Usage: Hija.
takhe n. (Bot.) variety of cane.
takhe vi. to lie
on one's back, face up.
takhe lahii v. to dive.
takhii [ta´xi] n. (Zool.) variety of large squirrel
species which is hunted and ritually used during *Myoko festival .
takhii See: takhe.
takhii [´taxi]vt. to kill by striking with an axe or a
takhon. (Bot.) Old World
Forkedfern (Dicranopteris linearis), a fern species used in
particular to make
spring action traps (*giimya). Also used to fence altars or shrines during certain rituals. takho gakhen. children's bangle made of *takho fern.
takho n. bamboo
splits which are laid down for demarcating land, as to show ownership. Encycl:
some *takho are put around the house and rice field after the
performance of *Myoko rituals. takho beniinn. chant by priest during *kheloniin
ritual on the 15th night of Myoko festival, when people ritually demarcate the boundaries of their houses and granaries.
takhoadj. 1. bald,
as of a person. Dinta takho. Bald
head. 2. bare; having little or no vegetation, as of a terrain, land, soil. Inka aji si takhodo. This field is bare (i.e. without paddy).
takhov. to disagree.
takhun [´ta´xũ] n. variety fish trap made of of a bamboo
tube which is split at one end and shaped like a circular funnel. Used
for catching small fish, especially eel-fish (*ngiiyi-ribu).
talann. (Med.) chicken pox.
talann. (Med.) measles.
talan papin. (Bot.) variety of Hedychium plant wearing red flowers. See: papi.
talen. (Bot.) variety of garlic (Allium sp.), possiblyChinese Chives (A. tuberosum). Usage:
Hari, Bulla. Encycl: the word 'Tale Valley' is derived from that of this species that grows abundantly there. Var: lepi. Usage: Hong, Hija .
tale n. leftovers of drinkables/smokeables, e.g. leftovers which can be preserved.
talin. (Zool.) fox. Syn: tali aki.
tali yordun. (Bot.) Chilly (Capsicum anuum).
to agree to a proposal.
to cut in, with an axe or a hoe.
talii 1. n. unnatural/violent death for male.2. adj. accidental.talii myoko n. land of the dead for males who die of unnatural/violent death. talii sii/taliipa sii vi.(of a male) to die of unnatural/violent death. Mo taliipa siine. He died accidentally. See: libun.
n. precious brass plate used during certain rituals such as *Murun. Talo bare. One brass plate. talo punyu [´talo pu´ñu:] n. metallic spoon.
talu balo vt.
to deceive; to betray; to cheat.
(Bot.) variety of bamboo growing outside the valley, similar in appearance to *yabin.
talyato la [talja´tola]interj. 'Excuse me', 'Listen'. Gramm: idiomatic expression used as a polite way to ask something.
Talyato la, Post Office noho pe donii kalamasu pe ha? Excuse me,
do you know where the Post Office is? Talyato la, Old Ziro chado koda niitampa pe, chakindo nii? Excuse me, can you tell me how I can get
to Old Ziro.
talyin. (Med.) bruise on skin; contusion; ecchymose.
-talyivsuff. shall [do] surely. Gramm:
irrealis modality suffix combination attached to verb roots having two or more syllables, used as
non proximal future marker, first person singular. Gives a sense that
the event or state is almost certain to happen or occur. See: -chi; -kin; -ken.
Ngo imitalyi. I shall sleep. Ngo nunuka agin ho tobotalyi. I shall go (down) along with you. Ngo moluka agin ho dubotalyi. I shall stay/sit with them. Ngunu yasan batetalyi. We are going to fetch some wood.
-talyikuvsuff. am going to [do] at the instant. Gramm:
irrealis modality suffix combination attached to verb roots having two or more syllables, used as
proximal future marker. Most appropriate for first person singular. Ngo apin diitetalyiku. I'm going to eat now. Ayo
yoye, Manu hende-hende hela, imitalyiku la
biidi ako hempatii. One night, Manu kept thinking over and
over, and as she was about to sleep she imagined a plan.
talyivt. to praise unsincerely, as in order to win favor; to flatter.
talyunn. (Med.) cysticercus (the larval form of the Taenia tapeworm).
tama n. (Bot.) variety of plant resembling a palm-tree or a
giant fern, typically found in the sub-montane forest zone. tama amun. filandrous bark of the *tama plant. Encyl: the Apatanis used to extract fibers from the outer bark of the *tama tree and
incorporate them into various basketry works such as *lecha or *byoper, to render
them waterproof. The fibers may also have been used for tying fletches onto arrowshafts in the old days.
-tamavsuff. shall not [do] surely. Gramm:
negative form of the irrealis modal suffix *-talyi, attached to verb roots having two
or more syllables, used as
non proximal future marker. More appropriate with first person singular. Abu kela la
niimi henga-henkhadopa miibitama sii ke. I will not trouble you by
writing too long. No ngiinyika agin
ho inbotama ha? Won't you also go with us?
tambervt. to drink or smoke too much of something and have one's body reacting badly later on. Usage: always used for making negative remarks.
n. (Bot.) generic term for various herbaceous species and weeds used as
compost fertiliser in paddy fields, including pignut (Hyptis suaveolens). hiiji tamin. (Bot.) Ageratum conyzoides, a medicinal plant for curing cuts and wounds. misan tami.misu tamin. variety of weed. nehan tamin. variety of creeper whose smell is
an indication of the presence of a ghost within the vicinity. piidi naru tamin. (Bot.) variety of weed whose odour is
reminiscent of that of a fart. riri tamin. (Bot.) Mile-a-minute, Chinese creeper (Mikania micrantha), a perennial creeping climber, also a very invasive weed. tami miivcn. to de-weed. See: aru.
tamin. (Zool.) generic term for flies, more specifically housefly (Musca domesticus). ipa tamin. (Zool.) Green bottle fly (Lucilla sp.). rorin tami [ro:´rî ta´mi]n. (Bot.) Velvet Plant (Gynura bicolor). Syn: ngiiyi rorin. tasu-tamin. pests, in general. See: tachan-tiyo.
taminn. (Bot.)Common (Indian) Madder (Rubia cordifolia).Encycl: the roots, stem and leaves of *tamin
produce a reddish orange pigment which the Apatanis used as a natural dye in olden days, in particular for coloring *ahu. Var: tiimin. Usage: Hija.
taminsaniin. (Bot.) Nepal Mahonia/Indian Barberry (Mahonia napaulensis), an evergreen shrub with spiked glossy
leaves, used in ritual functions.
tamon. (Bot.) Chinese sumac (Rhus
chinensis/Rhus semialata), a tree species. tamo yasann. firewood obtained from Chinese sumac, that usually sparks when burning.
1. strong. 2. courageous; brave.
tamovt. to encourage. Usage: for adults or persons older than the speaker, instead of *mamo which is used for kids.
tampuvt. to drink or smoke something by mistake
1. adj. nice/delicious/pleasant to drink or
smoke. Ant: taru. 2. n.
pleasant drink. Ngo tampyo ako mi tamba-tankasiinando. I want to share some
nice drink [with others].
tampyovt. to drink/smoke before anyone else does; to drink/smoke in first place.
tamun. generic class of powerful spirits. Syn: tamu uyi. Potentially harmful, they are also believed to protect humans if propitiated properly, especially by reinforcing their bodies. In particular, the Apatanis of olden days thought that such rituals could make them invulnerable to bullets; arrows, spears, etc. By extension, may also designate the sacrificial altars that are erected near the main entrance of the house. tamu laniinn. ritual performed at the house of the giver of a *murun, during which a
few youngsters jump over one *yakhan basket filled with rice/millet beer
while others beat *talo discs.
to be confused by what one hears. 2. to mishear; to hear something wrongly; to hear
the wrong thing; to
mistake something for something else. 3. to pay no attention to a sound or call.
tamyon. variety of tree which, when used as firewood, produces a lot of sparks that may cause injuries or fire accident.
tamyon. variety of body colour pattern for mithun bulls. Describes an animal of overall black coat with a broad white patch running down the back from the head to the tail. See: yamyo.
tan [´tã]vt-r. 1. to drink. 2. to smoke.
tanbavt. (of a plural subject)to drink or smoke together. Syn: tamba-tanka.
tampyo ako mi tamba-tankasiinando. I want to share some nice drink
tanbivt. to drink or smoke on someone else's
tanbivt. to drink or smoke in a wasteful
tanbovt. to drink or smoke along with someone
tanchevt. to share drinkables. diiche-tanchevt. to share food.
tancheradj. choosy about drink. Usage: Bulla. Var: tanchi.Usage: Hija. diicher-tancheradj. choosy about food and drink.Usage: Bulla. Var: diichi-tanchi. Usage: Hija.
tanchi See: tancher.
tanchinvt. to know how to drink or smoke.
tandin vt. to drink or smoke deliberately.
tandiiadj. poisonous to drink.Tandii yasi. Poisonous water. tandii giinii n. 1. poisonous drink. 2. poisonous agent; poisoner.
tane pron. (of thin, flat objects or materials such as sheet of paper, books, etc.) how many. Gramm: interrogative pronoun used for a countable number of items in a collection.
tangeSee : tonge.
tangiiadj. drunk, from drinking alcoholic beverage; inebriated or stone, from smoking.
tangiivt. to take someone along with oneself to drink or smoke; to share a drink or a cigarette with someone.
tango n. thing to be drunk or smoked.
tangovt. to drink or smoke first (overtaking or excluding
tangu tapan n. (Bot.) variety of herbaceous plant from which a poison is extracted.
tangusi n. (Zool.)Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). Usage: Hari; Bulla. Var: tangiisi. Usage: Hija. Var: tahansi. Usage: Hong.
taninn. (Bot.) Wild sesame (Perilla frutescens). Encycl: the aromatic leaves of Perilla frutescens are popular in many parts of East and Southeast Asia. The
Apatanis usually do not eat the leaves, but the seeds are ground and used as condiment or for
making rice cakes.
1. name Apatani(s)
(as person or people). 2. adj. Apatani. 3. n. Apatani (as a language). Ngo Tanii pa ludu. I speak in Apatani. Tanii miyu n. Apatani (person).
Mo Tanii miyu ha? Is he/she an Apatani? Tanii agun n. Apatani language.
tankavt. to test something by drinking or smoking it.
tankanvt. to drink/smoke for a long time or beyond the allotted time.
tankunvt. to drink or smoke together.
tankhiivi. 1. to have no more desire to drink or smoke after having had a bad experience. 2. to swear not to repeat drinking or smoking after having had a bad experience. 3. to die from ingestion of a poisonous drink.
tankhiin vi. to feel dizziness after drinking (esp. alcoholic beverages) or smoking.
tankhun.leftovers of drinkables/smokeables, e.g. some discarded drinks.
tanniinn. drinking/smoking. lapan o tanniinn. collective gathering during which the participants enjoy rice/millet beer and *tapyo salt, often accompanied by *ayu chanting.
tannyov. to practise drinking or smoking.
n. yarn; fibre. tano horniinn. the making of raw cotton into yarn. tano horton. yarn thread. Tano ponye. Two yarns. Tano punye. Two threads or yarns wound in coils or balls.
tanyin. 1. (Bot.) maize (Zea maize). 2. one of the three varieties of maize cultivated by the Apatanis. See: mire; nyitii.Encycl: maize
is cultivated only in gardens inside the village and in more
distant garden plots, not in open dry fields . tanyi arun. outer cover of a corn/maize ear. tanyi marpun. cornsilk. tanyi miige n. tongs used to take roasted maize out of the fire. tanyi
pamiin. powdered corn/maize. tanyi-nyilin. maize/corn seed. uyi tanyin. (Bot.) Cobra Lily (Arisaema sp.), a wild flowering plant whose single, phallus-like green inflorescence (or spathe) resembles a maize ear. It has a foetid smell that attracts insects .
tan'yinvt. (of a plural subject) to drink or smoke together.
tanyoadj. (of thin, flat objects or materials) small. Ant: taro.
ta'ngon. part of a music, speech, etc. that has not been listened to or heard.
ta'ngon. 1.drink leftover, e.g. after a meal; residue from smokeables. 2. drink leftover kept for future use; smokeables kept for future use
ta'ngovt. to stop listening to something or someone.
ta'ngun. (Zool.) honey bee.
ta'nguvt. to drink or smoke separately.
tapavt. 1. to hear; to manage to hear. 2. to hear about; to know. Moka armyan mi Ziro
daka miyu miilanru tapanyatii. His/her name was well-known in Ziro (lit. 'all people of Ziro had heard about his/her name')'.
tapa vt. 1. to miss to hear. Ngo moka speech mi tapakuma. I missed to hear his speech. 2. to ignore someone's word or speech. Gumto ka luniin mi tapasiito. Ignore what Gumto says! Syn: tago.
tapakoheadv. everywhere (as far as one can hear). Var: tapakoye.
tapan n. East.
tapann. (Bot.) generic term for 1. moss. 2. any floating plant. 3. algae. Var: tiipan. Usage: Hija. murta tapang n. (Bot.) Lesser Duckweed (Lemna minor). Var: morta. Usage: Hija . tangu tapan n. (Bot.) variety of herbaceous plant from which a poison is extracted. yasan
tape [´tape]n. (Bot.) pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata). Usage: Hong, Hari, Bulla. Var: ayo tape. Usage: Bamin-Michi; epe. Usage: Hija . tape apun. pumpkin flower. tape hamann. pumpkin leaf, commonly used as a vegetable in Apatani cuisine. Var: ayo tape haman; epe haman.
tape n. (Zool.) leech. Var: tiipe. Usage: Hija.
taper 1. n. heavy log put on the foot of prisoners to prevent escape in olden days. Syn: tiipii; tiipiir; tiiprii. 2. vt-r. to punish, esp. by means of a log (*taper) attached to the foot. taper panii n. one who is imprisoned with *taper (unspecified).
tapern. element of the *babo structure: two pairs of
elongated planks of 5-6 meters long, arranged so as to form a narrow
twin-armed platform. Encycl: the planks are first shaved with a machete and tied together
in pairs with cane strips, then the two wooden arms are inserted
horizontally into what is to become the top of the mast. Var: tipre. Usage: Hari. Syn: babo taper. ayo tapern. the upper part of the *taper armed structure. Var: ayo tipre. Usage: Hari. akan tapern. the lower part of the *taper armed structure. Var: akan tipre. Usage: Hari.
taper [ta´pər] n. (Bot.) variety of cane associated with a particular ritual performed during *Myoko festival, known as *taper liidu. Encyl: leaves from this plant are used to wrap up the carcass of the hunted monkey that is brought back to the clan ritual center (*nago), where the skull is preserved for the duration of the festival; a brush of *taper leaves is also placed
into the monkey skull's
nostrils. Var: tiiper. taper liiduvcn. collective ritual
performed on the third day of Myoko festival, mainly consisting in a procession around the village performed by male members carrying *taper leaf brushes and covering the *nago shrine with them. Later the leaves are taken back home and kept in the back corner of the house (*dokho achan). Syn: taper
liiniin: taper liila siiro cheniin.
taperadj. 1. terrible to hear. 2. too much to hear. No taper kai ela luda nii. You are saying too much!
tapi n. (Bot.) variety of creeper with large leaves found in abundance outside the Apatani valley. Tanii ganda
polan, Misan ganda Tapi. Lands where the *polan grass grows belong to
the Apatanis, lands where the *tapi grass grows belong to the Nyishis and
Miris. [Apatani saying]. tapi kobyan n. children bangle made of *tapi plant.
tapi n.small or tiny bird (generic). tapi ngiilan. (Zool.) general term for small-sized owls or owlets. Includes species such as the Tawny owl (Strix aluco) or the Brown Wood Owl (Strix leptogrammica). Var: tapi ngulla.tapi tame n. (Zool.) general term for small granivorous birds of the passerine family.
tapinn. (Bot.) variety of edible bamboothat plays a prominent role in Apatani mythology and rituals, along with *tajer.
tapiin. element of a loin loom used to tighten threads. Found immediately above the *akan potin and below the *lokho .
taprii See: taper.
tapon. (Bot.) variety
of tall, reed-like herb growing near water, traditionally used for thatching houses.
tapo [tapo]n. spindle. Encycl: basically a stick inserted into an earthen
ball used to combine and twist fibers together to form thread or yarn.
As the spindle is dropped downward with a twist, the thread is pulled
from the pack of unspun fibers and wound onto the stick.
of body colour pattern for mithun bulls. Describes an animal having an
overall black coat with large white patches across the body through the back. See: yapor.
of body colour pattern for mithun bulls. Describes an animal of
overall white coat. See: yapu; punya.
n. (Zool.) bat (generic). miido tapunn. (Zool.) variety of small bat that always hovers in the air and can be seen especially when it is likely to rain. Etym: from *miido, 'rain', *tapun, 'bat'.
tapya vt. to untie/unfasten a knot.
tapyon. salty substance obtained by filtering water through the ashes of certain plants, used as delicacy. Encycl: the 'Apatani salt' can be obtained from various plant leaves including ferns (Dicranopteris linearis), reeds (Phragmites karka), banana (Musa spp.), among others. The leaves are burnt, distilled, fried and finally made into flat cakes. A primary source of iodine in olden days.
tapyoadj. nice, pleasant to listen. Ant: taru. tapyopa adv. in a manner which is nice to hear. Mo tapyopa biisidu. He sings sweetly.
tapyoadj. easy to cut with an axe or a hoe Ant: taru.
tapyoadj. easy to dig. Ant: taru.
tapyo puburn. ritual element used in sacrificial altars .
tapyun. (Bot.) variety of edible bamboo.
tar [tar]vt-r. to bend or break something by bending it; to break something stiff with the hands.
tar piitaSee: tarlar.
tarbivt. to break something on someone else's behalf/for someone.
bamboo tube used for storing meat. Syn: yo tardu.
1. thorn. 2. adj. thorny. Usage: Bulla; Dutta. Var: tiire. Usage: Hari. tare apyan. patch of prickly shrubs or vines. Var: tiire apya. tare jilyinSee: tiire jilyin. tare sudun. smoking pipe, the bowl of which is made of a variety of thorny cane. Var: tiire sudu.
tare [tare] part. 1. too; also; as well. Gramm: conjunctive/additive particle usually following nouns, pronouns or clauses, indicating that the subject shares a quality, or takes part in an action indicated by the verb in the same way as, or in addition to another person, or that the marked action is carried out in addition to another action. Ngo tare ayasiido. I too am doing fine. 2. (in negative clauses) not even. Mo anyiko tiiko bare tare nyikumane. They two were without even a penny left. Var: tere. Usage: Hari. Var: tiire. Usage: Hong. Var:ter. Usage: Bulla. Manu moka patan
ajin agin ho ter yanujapa datii. Within her
agricultural labour group too, Manu was the
doctor mi ter kapate, medicine labiitii. I saw the doctor also, and took some medicine.
tare miile adj. (of a baby or child) having a sweet, innocent face.
tarin. (Bot.) general term for ferns, including species such as Asplenium nidus, Angiopteris
evecta, Dicranopteris linearis, etc. Encycl: some fern species are commonly eaten as vegetables, or used for making *piyu (remaining ashes after burning) and *pila (alkaline liquid obtained by filtration of *piyu).
tarivt. to begin to drink or smoke.
tari gara See: tagyan.
tarin n. traditional leg ornament, a plaited ring knitted from *taser yaso cane which used to be worn by adult males and children below the knee. Today only used by *nyibus during certain important occasions such as *Murun, *Myoko, or *Subu tado. Syn: ali tarin.
tarinadj. feeling jealous when hearing a conversation between two people.
tariin. 1. shirt. 2. cloth. jikhe tarii n. 1. thick short sleeves
cotton jacket worn by males in olden days. 2. variety of cotton jacket worn by a
*nyibu during rituals, richly decorated with indigo motifs, mostly of
losenge shape, with fringes at the bottom. kente tariin. variety ofthick short
sleeves cotton jacket worn by females in olden days. supun tarii n. variety of sleeveless fringe white shirt for ladies richly decorated. tipya tariin. variety of ceremonial lady skirt.
tarii piita See: tarlar.
tarji n. (Zool.) 1. centipede. 2. scorpion .
tarjin vi. to stretch oneself out; to straighten.
tarkivt. to bend.
tarkon. (Bot.) variety of small thorny tree used as a medicine, possibly Phyllantussp. Encycl: reduced to ashes, it used to be applied to
the navel of a newborn as a disinfectant; also used for skin allergy.
tarko See: o tarko/yo tarko.
tarkhon. forked bamboo.
tarlarn. (Zool.) peacock. Denotes either Indian Peacock (Pavo cristatus) or Grey Peacock Pheasant (Polyplectron bicalcaratum). Syn: tar piita; tarii piita.
tarlunadj. barren; unable to conceive, as of a human or an animal.
tarnen. (Anat.) pus. Usage: Hija. Huli une ho tarne. Pus in a boil.Var: tarnye. Usage: Bulla.
taroadj. many; a huge number of. tarojaadj. a huge number of. Var: haroje. Hiimkane taroje miyu apun ho ngo
ananma. I don't want to go into such a large crowd.
taroadj. (of thin, flat objects or materials) large. Ant: tanyo.
tarovt. to hear secretely; to hear from a place of hiding.
taro sanii [ta:ro ´sa:´ni:]
n. (Bot.) Ficus auriculata. taro ahi n. wildfig.
tarpin. (Bot.) Plectocacomia himalayana, a cane species used for binding purposes in construction of building . Var: tarpin.
tarpin n. (Zool.) meat maggot. Syn: yo tarpin.
tarruadj. hard to break (esp. by hands).
tarsi [´tarsi]n. bamboo wall, esp. referring to the cross-hatched flattened bamboo walls of a house. Var: tasi; tashi. See: myopii.
n. (Anat.) 1. small, brownish spot on the skin; freckle. Encycl: as per tradition, brownish spots on the skin are believed to be caused by contact with the blood of a snake. 2. (Med.) wart.
tartuvt. to break with the hands, esp. sticks. Var: tarte. tartu-tarkavt. to try to break (stick) with the hands. Siika yakho simi tartu-tarkato. Try to break this stick! tartu-tarman. stub of a stick. tartu-tarpovt. to break with the hands, esp. sticks, into small pieces.
taru [ta´ru] n. ant. Var: tarhu. Usage: Hija.
n. (Zool.) mosquito.
tarun. 1. rope, string. Mo gagerpa la
taru mi gatubiido la putu chapene. By holding the rope firmly and
exerting full effort, he managed to
climb the hill. 2. (Bot.) generic term for creepers.
taru adj. difficult or unpleasant to drink/smoke. Ant: tampyo.
taruadj. 1. difficult to hear. 2. unpleasant/rough to the ear. Ant: tapyo.
taruadj. hard to cut (with an axe or a hoe). Ant: tapyo.
taruadj. hard to dig.Ant: tapyo.
tasa n. (Zool.) variety of insect.
tasa[tasa] n:qual. (of
two or more flat objects such as sheet of paper, volumes of books, etc.) 1. distinct; different. 2. one set for each. Gramm: post-nominal
qualifying noun. Etym:
from*pata, 'flat or flattened object'.
-tasa vsuff. Let us go and [do]. Gramm: hortative suffix
used for suggesting a collective action including the
speaker. Used when the place for the action to be performed is distant from the speaker. Aji yasi agetasa.
Let's go and drain off the field.
tasann. 1. bead. 2. bead necklace. tasan-tahin n. ornaments. bimpu tasann. variety of bead/necklace.
ebyo tasann. variety of bead/necklace.
tasen. (Bot.) Tree Fern (Cyathea gigantea), a variety of edible giant fern, traditionally exploited for its starch. Encycl: the giant fern is common along the river bank
elevations up to 1,000 meters. In olden days, *tase used to be the emergency food in time of extreme scarcity in all Tani-speaking groups. The bark was removed, and the soft, white inner part (pith) cut into small pieces or reduced to powder. The flour could be eaten
raw, roasted, boiled, steamed, heated under fire inside leaves or fried
and eaten. Nowadays *tase flour is sometimes used to feed pigs. The leaf is also used as a remedy against bodyache .
tasern. (Bot.)Rattan Palm(Calamus acantospathus), a climbing rattan with slender canes and large leaves. Encycl: climbs up into the tree
tops, and is a source of rattan cane. The stem bears spikes on
the nods. The Apatanis use it for making ropes used for binding various building structures. Also formerly used to make nose plugs worn by females. taser yason. 1. Rattan Palm. 2. rope made of Rattan Palm.
tasi See: tarsi.
tasi anii See: yasi anii.
tasi nanii See: yasi anii.
tasin [ta´sĩ]n. (Zool.) dragonfly larva. Encycl: Dragonfly aquatic larvae are caught in paddy
fields and eaten by the Apatanis. tasin piiha [ta´sĩ pi´ha] n. variety of basket made of bamboo splits used for
carrying various vegetables and weeds in paddy fields. See: piiha. tasin yachun. small variety of basket worn on the waist or hip by women for carrying river shrimps. nyampo tasinn. (Zool.) river shrimp. sini tasinn. (Zool.) variety of aquatic larva resembling that of a dragonfly .
tasun. noise. tasu-tase adj. loud, as of of a noise; deafening.
tatan. variety of body colour pattern for mithun bulls. Describes an animal having an overall black coat with large white patches on the sides. See: yata. tata-tabinn. variety
of body colour pattern for mithun bulls. Describes an animal of
overall black or dark-brown coat with large white patches on the sides and a white head. See: yata-yabin.
tata See: pulu tata.
tatin. (Zool.) cockroach.
tatiin. (Zool.) frog or toad. tatii arnii n. eclipse (solar or lunar). Ato Piilo mi tatii arniibiido ke! The frog is eating the Moon! (i.e. there is a solar eclipse). tatii horpun. variety of white chunky bead. Ejan tatiin. solar frog which in olden days was believed to cause eclipses. halyan tatiin. (Zool.) variety of newly introduced
species of toad, light brown or yellowish in colour, brought from other
with fish alevins. miido tatiin. general term for forest frog species. tohan tatiin. variety of brown frog. tiirii
tatiin. (Zool.) general term for toads and toad-like frog species. aji tatiin. (Zool.)variety of frog commonly found in paddy fields. yanii tatiin. (Zool.) general term for tree frogs of the Racophoridae family, including the Common Tree Frog
(Polypedates leucomystax) and various species of the Racophorus genus.
tatu vt. to hear/listen for the first time.
tatu-katu adj. known; famous. Syn: kago-tago.
tatu nanun. (Zool.) bumble bee.
tatu puyun. news coming from far away (which cannot be seen nor confirmed).
taun. variety of body colour pattern for mithun bulls. Describes an animal resembling a wild gaur (Bos gaurus), i.e. having a dark-brown coat except for the lower part of the legs which is white, often also with dark brown hair on the forehead. See: yau.
tayann. (Zool.) honeybee; bee in general. Includes species such as Apis indica and A. florea. tayan-tagyan n. (Zool.) bees and wasps in general. Var: taya-tagya. tayan miilin. (Zool.) Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malayensis).
tayan rara adj. deserted, as of an environment or surroundings. Var: taya rara.
taya-tara adj. untidy; rough; slovenly.
tayen:num. (of flat and thin objects, or materials) one. Gramm: used when referring to a particular object. When enumerating only, as in school, *takun is used instead. Var: tae. Moka ate ngiipa siti taye
kebitii. His elder brother wrote a letter for me.
tayinvt. (of a plural subject) to listen together.
tayin vt. (of a plural subject)to cut/chop together with an axe or a hoe.
tayin vt. (of a plural subject)to dig together
tayin koya n. (Med.) gonorrhoea. Var: tai koya.
tayin tarpin n. (Med.) corn. Var: tai tarpin.
tayin siitin n. (Med.) epilepsy. Var: tai siitin.
tayun. (Zool.) variety of bee or wasp, living in hives (generic). taru aru n. hornet or wasp hive . tayu-yucha n. variety of large-sized wasp, though smaller than a hornet. tayu-yutiin. (Zool.) hornet.
te vt-r. to cut down standing herbage or grass; to mow.
te vi-r. 1. (of humans) to keel over; to falldown or fall over from a standing position. 2. (of rain) to fall.
-te vsuff. [did]; [was]. Gramm:
perfective aspectual suffix, first person singular, marking an event that was completed in the
non-proximal past, more appropriately in a place remote from the speaker at the time his statement is made. Usually refers to a
relatively punctual event, or an event having occured over a well
delimited period of time. See: -to. Bilo ngo
ngiika atebo mi kariidu pa railway station ho ate. Yesterday I went to pick up
my elder brother at the railway station. Ali mi yamu
chabyasiite. I got my leg burnt from stepping on the fire. Siilo jaji gonii si gomurte ke, ngiika lap-top mi alyusiite. Today's flight was bad as I lost my laptop.
-te vsuff. knock down. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something is knocked down as a result of the action denoted by the verb. Yasi glass mi
cricket ball lo
Tara ritebiine. Tara threw a cricket ball which made the water glass to
-te vsuff. far away. Gramm: directional suffix indicating that the action denoted by the verb is, was or will be carried out in a place located far away from the speaker. Occurs before tense and imperative markers. Kiije,
kiile ho apya tatesa. Let's go swimming in the river! Kiije
sotesa. Let's go for an outing! Ngunu yasan
batetalyi. We are going to fetch some wood.
tebivt. to cut down grass on someone else's behalf/for someone.
tebinvt. (of a plural subject) to cut down grass jointly.
tebovt. 1. to cut down grass along with someone. 2. to help someone cut down grass.
teda vt. to lean on or against something. A: Inka milobo si hu na? B: Niibo? A: Tarsi hoka tedato la daniibo. A: Who is that boy? B: Who? A: the one who is leaning against the wall.
teku adj. slanted, as of a tree, pole, mast, etc.; slanting; tilting. Babo si tekuto la do. This *babo mast is tilting.
tekhu-techevt. to cut/mow the major portion of a given area of land.
teliivt. to push something in by fingers. Ant: telin.
telin. oil. From: Hindi 'tel'.
telinvt. to push something out by fingers. Ant: telii. Mobile so
Anyo ka number mi oye telinto pe. Please dial Anyo's number for me on
this mobile phone.
telyaadj. not balanced; lopsided. Syn: telya-techa.
tema vt. to touch.
-temavsuff. will not [do]. Gramm: temporal suffix combination used to to indicate that an action will not occur. Usually best translated by the negative form of the Simple Future.
tenvt-r. to press something down.
tenvt-r. to put in or place, esp. small things.
tenbivt. to press down something for someone.
tenbyavt. to get burnt by touching a hot surface.
tenka vt. to speak in an ironical way, as in order to to taunt or provoke someone.
tenkavt. to dent something by pressing down.
tenpovt. join two things by pasting.
tentivt. to press something down tightly.
ter See: tare.
-ter [tər] vsuff. defend. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subject performs the action indicated by the verb to defend oneself. Miiter. To resist. Luter. To
defend one's opinion or cause verbally.
teron. (Bot.) chilly . tero yorhannphr. raw chilly. tero yorlinphr.chilly seed. tero yorsinnphr.dried chilly. sanii teron. Sichuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum sp. possibly Z. rhetsa), a small tree species whose tiny fruits are commonly eaten as spice. Encycl: the Apatanis use the outer pod of the immature green fruits, which are very similar to *yorkhan fruits but have a smooth skin. Etym: literally ‘chilly
tree'. Syn: santu tero .
teyan. (Bot.)Millet (Setaria italica). Syn: tiya.
teyi vi. to fall down.
vt-r. to pour. Syn: to.
vt-r. 1.to pull, as a string. 2. to draw, as a card. Usage: Hija. Syn: tii.
ti vt-r. to score a surface; to mark with significant lines, scratches or notches across a surface.
vt-r. 1.to rub with the finger. 2. to rub with a matchstick to light a fire. Usage: Hari, Hija. Var: tii.
-ti [ti]vsuff. again; repeat. Gramm: temporal suffix indicating that the action denoted by the verb is happening for a second time, or as a second round.
-ti [-ti:] vsuff. tightly; securely. Gramm: verb suffix indicating that the action identified by the verb results in something being strongly fixed or held, or that the action is performed in a tight or constricted manner.
tibivt. to pour water, etc. on someone else's behalf/for someone.
tichavt-r. to start a fire, esp. by rubbing with a matchstick.
timyavt. to stain, smear or smudge by pouring something.
timya-tisa 1. vt. to stain, smear or smudge by pouring something. 2. adj. having one's mouth, leg, etc. all covered in something.
tin- class. the width of one finger, a basic unit of linear measure. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for measuring breadths of small size. tinnge, tinnye, tinhinnge, tinpe, tinngohe, tinkhe, tinkanuhe, tinpinye, tinkoahe, tinlyanhe.
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 10 finger width(s). See: ha-.
tinvt-r. to tell a parable or a proverb. Nitin tindo. Tell a parable.
-tinvsuff. compare. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that a comparison between two or more items is made through of the action denoted by the verb. Khiitin. To compare.
-tinvsuff. stop; close; block. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the action of the verb results in a stoppage, closure or blocage of something. Ngiika adin achi mi diiro diitinsiitii. I ate some medicine to stop my headache. See: -tu.
tiniin [tinĩ]n. pouring of a liquid.
n. producing of a flame (by rubbing a matchstick).
tiniinn. marking; making of a mark. ude tiniinn. domestic ritual performed by the priest during a *murun the day following a *penii, also during *Myoko after completion of the *ajin gyoniin ceremony. During this ritual rice flour marks are put on the walls of the house.
tinngen:num. one finger width. Syn: lachi tinnge.
tipavt. to rub something off with the finger, so as to erase something. Syn: nyupa.
tipinavt. to press something with one's thumb. From: Assamese.
tipre See: taper.
tipya tariin. variety of ceremonial jacket for ladies.
tiseradj. sweet; sweet-tasting.
titovt. to rub, as when lighting a matchstick on a matchbox.
tiyi See: tihi.
tiyon. (Zool.) insect; worm, esp. hairy worm and caterpillar (generic). empya tiyon. (Zool.) silkworm pupae (chrysalis). tachan-tiyon. (Zool.) generic term for pests, comprising insects in general, wood boring
insects and worms.
tii vt-r. to pull. Var: ti. Usage: Hija.
tii vt-r. to throw, esp. discs or disc-like objects.
tiivt-r. to collide with or bump into something;
vt-r. to chop, as a
tree; to fell.
anyan hokii laja ngunu Tanii lemba ho saro-sanii mi
tiimatii. In olden days in our Apatani villages
we did not cut Banyan trees.
tii vt-r. to catch fish with a pole; to pole-fish. Var: ti. Usage: Hija.
tiivt-r. to offer (as a sacrificial offering); to present.
tii [ti] cop. past form of copular verb *sii. Ngo no tii koda, siilo school indiima. If I were you, I wouldn't go to school today. Syn: siitii.
-tii [ti]vsuff. 1. [did]; [was/were]. Gramm: Continuous aspectual suffix, marking an event that was completed in the non proximal past but was continued or repeated up to now, or whose effects are still perceptible. No nii miitii? What have you done? Aber kone
da atiisiito, kapakuma. I kept that somewhere, but couldn't find it. Bilo anyan ho, ngunu ka
aba-apa atan hii bije-siko mi ano aya butii. In the past, our
forefathers preserved the bamboo groves very well. 2. would. Gramm: irrealis modality suffix. Much like a conditional marker when occuring along with particle *koda (if). Tapu atii koda, hime atan gasukenmane.
If Tapu had come, the children would not have quarreled. Lembo ayatii koda, ngo Itanagar totiido. If road conditions were good, I would have gone (down) to Itanagar. No biilyo chatii koda ayatiido, siilo ngo Itanagar tochi. It would have
been better if you came yesterday, today I am going to Itanagar.
-tii vsuff. complete. Gramm: result suffix
indicating completion of something which is supposed or expected to be
completed by an action indicated by the verb. Ngo sa mi
tantiilakinma. I cannot finish the tea (which I am supposed to drink).
-tii...-rii vsuff. half-heartedly. Gramm: split manner suffix indicating that the subject performs the action denoted by the verb in a half-hearted manner, without conviction or neglectfully.
tiibe See: tabe.
tiiche vt. to break apart by pulling.
tiida vt. to collide with.
tiidanv. to stumble over something.
tiide vt. to put something against/around a pole, etc. to support it. tiide-nanii n. instrument such as a wooden stick that is used to support something, e.g. the dyke of a paddy field.
tiidinvt. to collide with something; to bump
into something. tiidin-tiipivt. (of two or more things) collide, bump
into each other.
tiigon. variety of rituals aimed at propitiating major benevolent deities, usually requiring large animals sacrifices and marked by the smearing of rice powder on
the altar and/or on the animals. Encycl: mainly refers to *Myoko, *Murun and *Subu tado during
which those deities are invoked, but also includes Dree and certain ceremonies related to life-cycle. Associated prohibitions are usually lesser and
shorter for rituals falling into this category than those for *chichin rituals. Var: tigo. Gyunyan tigo mi
ralyanma koda, miyu sanko nyima. Without the performance of
rituals there would be no place for humans to live. [Apatani saying]. See: gyunyan. tiigo uyin. generic term for benevolent deities worshipped during *tiigo rituals.
tiija-tiiyavt. to tear apart;to rip, as meat.
tiijinvt. to elongate; to stretch by pulling. See: pujin; bujin.
tiika/-tiika vsuff./part.1. you can. Gramm: permissive imperative modal suffix combination following imperative suffixes, used to indicate that the speaker allows the addressee to perform the action indicated by the verb. Also occurs as a particle in the absence of a verb. So atotiika. Do come over here! (i.e. you can come). Inngetiika. You can go! Siika ahi mi bachin hiila ludu. Lado la diikatotiika. We call this fruit Bachin. Take some and help yourself ! (i.e. you can have some).
Ant:-yoka 2. you should [do]; you'd better [do]. Gramm: hortative suffix combination indicating that the speaker urges or advises the addressee to carry out the action indicated by the verb. Often occurs following an imperative suffix (*-to, *-nge or -he). Ommo, baritotiika. Ommo, wake up! Aliitotiika
luhankele. I told you to put it in! Tom, nibyapa tiika! Tom, hurry up! No Gandhi Market inla tiika. You should go to Gandhi Market. Simi ya tiika.
Take this one instead/[You should] rather take this one. Var: tiikan.
tiike diiniinn. (Med.) cellulitis.
1. rupee. 2. money. Molu ngiimi tiiko bihii. They gave me money. From: Assamese 'toka'. tiiko bivcn. to give money for; to pay. Niika mobile mi tiiko bimapa danyopa ha labiinii? Did
your mobile phone come free of charge? tiiko komavcn. to earn money. From: Assamese 'toka
-tiikuvsuff. has/have [done]. Gramm:
perfective aspectual suffix combination indicating an event that has
been completed in the past. Usually translates English
Present Perfect. Apin diitiiku ha? Have you had your meal?
tiikhavt. to miss a target one is throwing at.
tiikheSee: siire tiikhe.
tiikhiiadj. curly, as of hair. Syn: tiikhii-tiilyi.
tiili-tiiliadv. continually and regularly.
tiilovt. to pull down.
tiilovt. to drop, from a height; to put down. Syn: alo.
tiilovt.to chop down, as a tree; to
tiimovt. to suspend.
tiina riikha adj. urgent.Syn: tiinii tana; tiinii-piina. tiina-riikhapa adv. urgently; desperately. Tiinariikhapa la ngo ude hokii inri. I moved urgently from my house.
tiinin n. (Bot.) variety of plant growing in the Valley that closely resembles sesame, possibly a local variety of sesame (Sesamum indicum). See: nendu.
tiinii piinaSee: tiina riikha.
tiinii tanaSee: tiina riikha.
tii'nga n. (Bot.) general term for any fruit of the Citrus family such as lemon, lime, orange, etc. ninbu tii'ngan. (Bot.) lemon; lime. From: Assamese 'nemu tenga'. komla tii'nga n. (Bot.) orange. From: Assamese 'komola'. palan tii'ngan. (Bot.) plum (Prunus domestica).
tiipavt. to break away something or someone by
vt. to throw away, esp. discs or disc-like objects.
tiipavt. to chop off.
tiipalovt. to drop, esp. discs or disc-like
tiipalovt. (esp. by a vehicle) to knock down
tiipe See: tape; epe.
tiipen. facial tattoo for men and women. Encycl:
the Apatanis was limited to the face. Men's tattoo consisted of a
single line running down from the lower lip to the point of the chin.
Women were tattooed on the chin with five vertical parallel
lines running down from an horizontal line located just below the lower
and another vertical line running from the middle of the forehead to
the tip of the nose. From 1973 onward the Apatani Youth Organization campaigned against facial tattooing, and the practice was progressively abandoned. Bilo
Tanii-lu tiipe byankernii mi ano kapyopa khiinyasiitii. In olden days
a thick facial tatoo was regarded as beautiful by the Apatanis. Bilo
tiipe giima nyimii yugyan ho agiimatii. In olden days women who did
not wear a tatoo did not join others in the clan altar .
tiipe See: tape.
tiipi-tiipo adj. neatly; suitably; properly.
tiipin See: tapin.
tiipii See: taper.
tiipuvt. to collide by mistake; to stumble
against. Etym: from *tii, 'to collide', *-pu, 'mistakenly'.
n. small necklace consisting of a black thread with a few beads on it that is given as a personal talisman to a newborn baby, usually by his aunts or by the *lache and *ari mechu at the time of the wedding ceremony (*mida). May also be used as a ritual element
in sacrificial altars .
tiipyo adj. easy to pull. Ant: tiiru.
tiipyo adj. easy to throw. Ant: tiiru.
tiipyoadj. easy to chop or fell. Ant: tiiru.
1.n. thorn. Ngiika liipyo ho tiire adubiine. I got a thorn in my foot [by stepping on it] (lit. 'a thorn came into my foot'). 2. adj. thorny. Usage: Hari. Var: tare. Usage: Bulla; Dutta. tiire apyan. bushy jungle. Var: tare apya. tiire jilyinn. (Bot.) Himalaya Blackberry (Rubus procerus), a thorny bramble bearing purplish-black berries. Etym:
from *tiire, 'thorn/thorny', *jilyin,
'bramble/berry'.Var: tiire jilyun. Usage: Hari; tare jilyun.
tiirevt. to break something by pulling it.
tiire See: tare.
tiirii n. (Anat.) forehead. tiirii paponphr. large/big forehead.
tiirii tatiin. (Zool.) general term for toads and toad-like frog species.
tiirii-hulyi n. (Zool.) variety of green grasshopper .
tiirovt. to enlarge or loosen something by pulling it. Var: tiiru.
tiiru adj. easy to pull. Ant: tiipyo.
tiiru adj. easy to throw. Ant: tiipyo.
tiiruadj. difficult to
cut, chop or fell. Ant: tiipyo.
tiitevt. to knock something down by throwing something
tiitu n. stump.
tiituvt. to pull something so that it
breaks; to break something by pulling. Syn: tiitu-tiipo.
tiiyinvt. (of a plural subject) to catch fish with a pole together.
to[to]vt-r. to pour.
Mo turla ko o totiibiine. He/she poured some beer into the mug. Syn: ti.
to [´to:] vt-r.
1. to move down; to descend. 2. to go south. Ant: cha. No biilyo chatii koda ayatiido, siilo ngo Itanagar tochi.
You should have come yesterday, today I am going to
Itanagar. No ayumada Itanagar tone pe la hento nii, hiira tochinkiilyi po? You have been to Itanagar recently, are you going again?
vsuff. imperative suffix. Gramm:
hortative/imperative suffix usually occuring at the end of the suffix chain.
vsuff. [did]; [was]. Gramm: perfective aspectual suffix, first person singular, marking an event that was completed in the non proximal past. Usually refers to a relatively punctual event, or an event having occured over a well delimited period of time. Ngo kabobiike le, Tapu mi aladopa kapato. As I looked across I saw Tapu coming. Ngo yasan takele ala tabyasiito. I hurt my hand as I was splitting the firewood. Ngo so apin diite hela ato. I came here after I had my meal. Hiika ho ngo ngiika cell phone mi bapasiito. I lost my cell phone there (by your side). See: -te.
tobavi. to go (down)
tobivi. to move donward on someone's behalf/for someone.
tobivr. to pour something on someone's behalf/for someone.
tobovi. to move down along with someone. Ngo nunuka agin ho tobotalyi. I shall go (down) along with you. Ngo ane agin ho Itanagar tobotalyi. I wil go [down] to Itanagar with my mother.
tobya vi. to get burnt from pouring or spilling something. Yasi gubu
lo ali mi tobyasiitii. I got burnt on my leg from spilling hot water on
todinvi. to go (down) deliberately.
-todo [todo] vsuff. may [do]. Gramm: prospective modal
suffix combination, first person singular. Indicates a possibility that the subject
performs the action denoted by the verb, or that the action indicated
by the verb is carried out. See: -nedo. Ngo Bank Tinali botodo. I may go (down) to Bank Tinali.
togiivi. to take someone along with oneself to go down/southward.
togovi. to move down/south before someone else does.
togyavi. to move down/south wrongly.
tokon. wood section used
to reinforce a house pillar, esp. *siiran. Syn: torchan.
tokopattan. (Bot.) Toko Palm (Livistona jenkinsiana), a palm tree species commonly used in Arunachal Pradesh for thatching purposes. From: Assamese 'toko'.
-toku [toku]vsuff. has/have [done]. Gramm: perfective aspectual suffix combination indicating
an event of the past occuring at the end of the predicate suffix chain. Usually translates English Present Perfect; first person singular. See: -neku.
-toku [´toku]vsuff. [do] it now! Gramm: imperative suffix combination Gramm:
hortative/imperative suffix combination occuring at the end of the predicate suffix chain, giving a more abrupt
and urgent sense to the order or request than the simple form in *-to.
Can be rendered in
English by '[Do] now !'. Diitoku! Now you eat!
tokunvi. (of a plural subject) to move donw/south
collectively; to move down as a group.
tokurvi. to descend back.
tolavi. to move down/south; to descend; to fall.
tolinn. unused building materials such as log/bamboo parts.
tolii vt. to pour in.
tolyo n. (Bot.) variety of flowering plant.
ton-class. group; band; herd; flock. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for group of persons or packs of animals. tonnge, tonnye, tohinnge, tonpe, tonngohe, tonkhii, tokanuhe, tonpinye, tonkoahe, tolyanhe 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 group(s)/band(s)/herd(s)/flock(s), etc. Var: tan-. Etym: from *atan, 'group'.
tonvt-r. 1. to haul up; to raise aloft, as a flag. 2. to exhibit; to put or spread out; to display.
tonvt-r. to offer, as in a ritual or sacrificial offering.
tonngen:num. one group; one band; one herd; one flock. Gramm: used when referring to a particular object. When enumerating only, as in school, *tonkun is used in place of *tonnge. Var: tannge. Aji patan tonnge. One
agricultural labour team.tonnge paadvphr. as a group.
tongon. 1. Tibetan
coarse woolen cloth, made out of sheep hair.2. wool; woollen.
Encycl: wool has never been produced locally but was
bartered or bought from outside, especially in the Assam plain. The Apatanis used to unravel the woollen yarn, dye it and use it for the manufacture of multicoloured embroidery applied on locally produced cotton clothes or ceremonial shawls.
tonkinvt. to exhibit; to unfold to the eye; to display.
tonkunn:num. (of persons or animals) one group/band/herd/flock. Gramm: used when enumerating only, i.e. without reference to a particular object. Otherwise *tonnge is used instead.
tonnyoadj. (of a group of persons or animals) small. Var: tannyo. Ant: tonro/toro. tonnyojaadj. (of a group of persons or animals) smallest. Var: tannyoja. tonnyoyaadj. (of a group of persons or animals) smaller. Var: tannyoya.
tonroadj. (of a group of persons or animals) large. Var: toro; tanro; taro. Ant: tonnyo. tonnyojaadj. (of a group of persons or animals) largest. Var: tannyoja. tonnyoyaadj. (of a group of persons or animals) larger. Var: tannyoya.
tonsa n:qual. (of
two or more groups, bands, flocks) 1. distinct; different. 2. one set for each Gramm: post-nominal
tonservt. to advise; to give
henyuvcn. to advise. tonser khemyovcn. to advise. tonsernii n. one who advises; adviser (unspecified). Henkhalyi hoka
tonsernii, ngiika ane. It's my mother who gives me insight when I am in a
-to pe [´to´pe]
vsuff. [do] to me; [do] for me (imperative). Hiika ball mi ngiimi
lato pe. Take that ball for me!
topo n. protruding part of a bamboo pole/log that that is unused during the house building process.
topyovt-i. to move down/south before someone else, to go (downward) first.
torvt-r. to unfurl; to open or spread out from a furled state, as of a flag.
tor See: tur.
-toransovsuff. Let me [do] first. Gramm: permissive imperative modal suffix combination indicating a suggestion on the speaker's part that the addressee should let him to perform the action denoted by the verb before the performance of another action. Simi miitoranso. Let me finish this first!
torda See: turda.
torivi. to move down/south to meet someone. Usage: Hija.
torminadj. (of colour) brown; dark orange.
torniinn. unfurling. Dree janda torniin. Unfurling of the Dree flag.
toron. (Zool.) Rhino Beetle.Toro kiidi durdo. The Stag Beetle is digging the soil.Syn: ipa chunyi. toro ariin. Rhino Beetle "horn" .
toro See: tonro.
toyinvi. (of a plural subject) to move down/south
tu-class. span of a measuring stick. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for counting spans as measured with a stick. Also used to count forearm spans. tuye/tue, tunye, tuhinnge, tupe, tu'ngohe, tukhe, tukanuhe, tupinye, tukoahe, tulyanhe 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 stick span(s). Ladu tuye. One forearm span.
to kick (by a person or an animal). Inka
tu'nge! Go and kick that ball!
tu [tu:] vt-r. to pick
to push; to shove.
-tuvsuff. block; struck. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the action of the verb results in a blocage of something. See: -tin. Gatu. To grip something.
-tuvsuff. 1. for the first time. 2. in first. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the action of the verb happens for the first time, or that the subject is first among a group in carrying out the action denoted by the verb. Ant: -myu. Tamo gitujapa giniibo. Tamo is/was the first to lie down.
-tuvsuff. broken. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the action carried out by the subject results in the object being broken. -tu...-povsuff. hacked to pieces. Gramm: result suffix indicating that someone or something is hacked or cut up into pieces as a result of the action denoted by the verb. Jotu-Jopo. Hack/cut into pieces with a blade or a knife. Patu-papo. Hack/cut into pieces with a machete or sword.
tubavt. (of a plural subject) to kick
tuba See: turba.
tuba vt. (of a plural subject) to pick
tubavt. (of a plural subject) to push/shove
kick someone or something on someone else's behalf/for someone.
tubi See: turbi.
tubivt. to pick someone or something on someone else's behalf/for someone.
tubivt. to push something on someone else's behalf/for someone.
. tubinvt. (of a plural subject) to kick unitedly.
tubin See: turbin.
tubinvt. (of a plural subject) to push unitedly.
tubovt. 1. to kick along with someone. 2. to help someone kick something.
tubo See: turbo.
tubovt. 1. to pick something along with someone. 2. to help someone pick something.
tubovt. 1. to push/shove along with someone. 2. to help someone push/shove something.
tubyu n. edge.
tuchan rali See: turchan.
tuchen. to kick something so as to divide it; to break/split something by kicking it.
tudinvt. to kick
something or someone deliberately/intentionally.
tudinvt. to pick
tudinvt. to push or shove deliberately/intentionally.
tudiiadj. short. tudii obyon. span.
tue See: tuye.
tugiivt. to take someone along with oneself to kick something; to let/allow someone to kick something along with oneself. Ngiimi football tugii pe. Let me play football with you. Ngo niimi football tugiiso. I will let you play football with me.
tugo vt. to kick something or someone before someone else does.
tugovt. to pick
something before someone else does.
tugovt. to push/shove before someone else does.
tugyavt. to kick wrongly.
tugyavt. to pick
tugyavt. to push/shove wrongly.
tuhevt. to kick something and get stuck or caught.
to kick to and from. Aro horjin la
ngiika ali tuhii-tukhelama. I strained a tendon so I cannot move my
tuke tabyon. (Zool.) 'woodlice', variety of small
insect which was eaten during famines in olden days. Var: tiikhe tabyo.
tuki 1. vt. to fold. 2. adj. folded; curved. tuki-tuhiadj. zigzagged, as of a line, road, etc. tuki-tuko vi. sinuous, as of a road.
tukun n:num. one stick span. Gramm: when enumerating only,
without reference to a particular object, as in school. See: tuhe.
tukunvt. (of a plural subject) to kick
collectively, to kick together.
tukunvt. (of a plural subject) to pick together.
(of a plural subject) to push; to shove collectively/together.
tukha adj. steep, as of a slope. Usage: Hari; Hija.
tukhavt. to miskick; to miss a kick. Mo ngiimi tukhabiine. He miskicked me. (i.e. he kicked but did not hit me).
tukhavt. to pick wrongly or miss to pick something.
tukhavt. to fail to push or shove something.
to sprain one's ankle or knee while kicking.
tulevi. to slip.
Tamo aji ho tuledo. Tamo
slipped into the paddy field.
tulin. pillar/post supporting the horizontal
structure of a house, esp. inner pillar. See: siiran. lapan tulin. wooden post of a *lapan. Encycl: According to tradition, at the time of reconstruction of a
*lapan each household had to contribute one post for every male member. Nowadays most *lapan supporting structures use concrete and iron materials .
tulivt. to kick someone in retaliation.
tulinvt. to push someone/something out by hands. Ant: tulii.
tulii [tu´li] vt. to kick inside. Hika ball mi so
that ball to me here!
tuliivt. to push someone/something in by hands. Ant: tulin.
tulun. subclan, a
descent group comprising male members having the same paternal ancestor, their
wives and unmarried sisters. Encycl: a *tulu constitutes a ritual unit in the sense the
sacred blood of the pig killed during Myoko is shared only within the *tulu of
the individual having sacrificed the pig. Strictly speaking, even a female
member of the family who is engaged may not be allowed to share it.
tulyavt. to wait
(with an intention of doing some action), to wait in ambush; to ambush. Police diipyonii mi latudu pa la
police is waiting to catch the thief.
tulyan 1. n. even edge. See: tubyu. 2. adj. even, as of an edge.
adj. 1. (of person's behaviour) quarrelsome,
inclined to fight. Tumalyi
hoka yarlonii, ngiika ane. It's my mother who calmes me down when I feel like
fighting. 2. (of person's
behaviour) bold; indiscreetly daring and dauntless.
tuminvt. to kick or play football casually or for
pastime. Ngunu ball tuminsiidu. We are playing ball
tuminvt. to win, as in a ball game. Spain,
World Cup tuminkendo la ngiika agin ho ahetayi ha no? Will you make a
with me that Spain is going to win the World Cup?
tumun. (Anat.) pubic hair of female.
tunvt. (as of fowl) to cage; to confine; to coop up; (as of humans) to confine; to incarcerate; to jail; to imprison.
tunbivt. to confine someone/something on someone else's behalf.
tunblunadj. stubborn; rigid; unyielding; not inclined to listen to others.
tuniiadj. very close in time; immediate; quick. tuniipa adv. immediately; shortly; quickly. Hiikane tuniipa ngo miiladiima! I may not be able to do it so quickly! Syn: tunii piida.
tunii ron. domestic fowl.
tuniin See: turniin.
tuniin [tu:nĩ]n. picking.
tuniin [´tu:niŋ] n. pushing; push.
tu'nguvt. to separate something by picking; to pick separately.
tupavt. to kick off/away.
tupin. cap (in general). From:
tupon. any tree or bamboo that does not have an upper part, or whose top has been removed.
tupon:qual. half full; not fully filled. Turla daka yasi si tupo do. The mug of water is half full. Syn: papo.
tupyovt. to kick first/before anyone does.
tupyo See: turpyo.
tupyovt. to pick first/before anyone does.
tupyovt. to push/shove first/before anyone does.
bamboo mug. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for counting liquid quantities contained in a bamboo
mug (*turla). ture, turnye, turhinnge, turpe,
turngohe, turkhe, turkanuhe, turpinye, turkoahe, turlyanhe
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 measure(s) of liquid contained in one mug (or cup).
tur [´tur]vt-r. to pluck, as a leaf, flower or fruit. Var: tu. Usage: Hari.
turvt. to support, as of a stake.Var: tor. Usage: Hija.
turvi. to be alive. Var: tor. Usage: Hija.
turbavt. (of a plural subject) to pluck something together.
turbivt. to pluck (leaf, flower, fruit) on someone else's
turbinvt. (of a plural subject) to pluck (leaf, flower, fruit) unitedly.
turbovt. 1. to pluck (leaf, flower, fruit) along with someone. 2. to help someone pluck something.
turchavt. topick up (leaf, flower, fruit).
turchann. pillar/post supporting the horizontal
structure of a traditional house. Var: tuchan. See: tuli, siiran.
turdavt. to support something by means of poles or sticks so that it stands of its own.Var: torda. Usage: Hija.
turen:num. 1. one mug. 2. one measure of
liquid contained in one mug (*turla) or cup, approximately one liter or one kilogramm. Gramm: used when referring to a particular object. When enumerating, as in school, *turkun is used instead. Turla ture. One mug. Syn: tur-.
turgovt. to pluck (leaf, flower, fruit) before
someone else does.
turkunn:num. 1. one mug. 2. one measure of liquid contained in one mug [*turla] or cup. Gramm: used when enumerating only,
i.e. counting without reference to a particular object, as in school. Otherwise *ture is used instead. Syn: ture.
turla [´tur´laʔ] n. 1. bamboo mug with
plaited brim and bottom used for usual drinking purposes. Plays an important role as a traditional unit of
measure (approx. 1l or 1 kg). 2. cup (of any
type) . ari turla n.variety of bamboo mug used during certain ceremonies. dompo turlan.
large sized bamboo mug especially used for measuring out rice. At the occasion of Dree in particular, it is used to measure the quantity of rice
collected from each household.
turliadj. (Zool.) Little forktail (Enicurus scouleri), a small black and white passerine bird. Usage: Hija. See: chilyu.
1. n. one who is alive (unspecified). 2. adj. (in a nominal/relatived phrase or clause) alive.
turpyovt. to pluck (leaf, flower, fruit) first/before anyone does.
tursan:qual. (of two or more mugs or cups) 1. distinct; different. 2. one set for each Gramm: post-nominal
qualifying noun. Etym: from*turla, 'bamboo mug'
turtuvt. to support. Liima-laga
atan hii basii-balyi mi yakenemapa turtudu. Roots of plants prevent
the portions of paddy field adjoining the river to collapse. turtu-naniin. anything that provides support for a thing; for plants, or for feet (e.g. for climbing); garden stake.
tuservt. to tear something by kicking it.
tushervt. to straighten out one's leg by kicking it outward; to stretch out one's legs.
tusivt. to join. tusi-tumevt. to connect with one another, as train bogies.
tusivt. to kick secretly, or from a place of hiding.
tusivt. to pick something secretly.
to push/shove secretly.
tusi-tusiadv. one by one; one after the other.
tusu vt. to break a relationship.
tuten. forehead of cattle.
tutupopo adj. abrupt; rude, as of a person or manner.
tuyen:num. one stick span. Gramm: used when referring to a particular measurement. When enumerating only, as in school, *tukun is used instead. ala tuyen:num. arm span, construed as the distance from the shoulder to the tip of the middle finger. Var: ala tuhe.