san. tea. Sa charto. Make some tea! Inka restaurant ho ala, sa hejalo,
tankinma byo ha? What about going over to that restaurant and have tea or
Assamese 'sa'. Var:
sha.lal san. black tea. Var: lal sha. From: Hindi 'lal chai', lit.
tea. sa pilan. mixture
of rice and black tea, usually taken as a morning dish. Var: sha pila.
sa [sa]vt-r. 1. to breathe(either inhale or exhale air).2.to suck in or absorb, esp. liquids; (in a figurative sense) to drink down/to drink in one breath. alyi sa vphr.to blow, as wind.
vt-r. to expel from one's body, as when delivering a child or when pushing the faeces out; to defecate.
-sa [sa] vsuff. Let us
[do]. Gramm: hortative suffix used for suggesting a collective action including the
speaker. May occur in compounds marked by reduplication of the verb root. Diipyosa. Let's eat first! Denkisa. Let's be sincere!
-savsuff. far. Gramm: directional suffix indicating that the action denoted by the verb is carried out at some distance from the speaker. Ant: -nii.
-sa [sa] adj-r. 1. distinct; different. 2. one for each. Gramm: adjective root suffixing classifiers and certain noun roots. Ngiinyipa pen sosa riibiilya. Buy one pen for each of us. Hime atan mi mitai persa bito. Give each child a sweet. Lenda byasa. (two or more) distinct/different roads.
sabe n. key. From:
Hindi/Assamese ‘chabi'. Sabe punnge/pyunnge. One bunch of keys.
loincloth, traditionally worn by men in olden days.
sabunn. soap. From: Hindi 'sabun'.
sachavi. to get or become excited. Syn: ducha.
sa chiriSee: sha chiri.
sader [sa´dər] n. any material having tiny holes which can be used as a filter to separate solid particles from a liquid. In particular, the conical shaped bamboo basket with a small outlet at the bottom that is used for filtering *tapyo salt. o sader [´o: sa´dər] n. funnel-shaped material used for filtering beer during beer processing.
sadi [´sadi]n. 1. variety of cultivated tree used for construction purposes. 2. tree grove
area located at the periphery of villages and cultivated areas. Usually consists of pine trees and other tree species. Var: sansun. Usage: Bulla, Mudang-Tage. Var: salii. Usage: Hong.
sadi eha n. ritual held in pine
grove area on the 30th day of Myoko. sadi-sapan. forest plantations in general, areas around the village dedicated to the growth, care and maintenance of useful trees and bamboos. Var: sali-sapa .
sagiivt. to absorb (esp. liquid).
sahan. cane rope. Tamo hiika subu simi saha lo hone. Tamo caught that mithun with a rope. Var: siiha. Usage: Hija.
saka vi. to be uncertain; to hesitate. Syn:saka-saka.
sakorin. employment; job. From: Assamese.
sakhiivi. feeling unable to achieve/do something completely.
sakhu n. (of
conifers) cone. piisa sakhun. pine cone. Syn: piisa pakhu.
n. raw (undried) wood; standing wood.
sali-sapa [´sali´sapa] See: sadi-sapa.
salinvi. to exhale. Ant: salii.
salinvi. to be born.
salinvt. to expel or be expelled.
tree and other mixed plantation area with or without bamboos, usually located at some distance from the village. Encycl: mostly planted with pine or oak (Castanopsis sp.). Owned collectively by the members of one household or one patrilineal segment (e.g. brothers and first cousins). Usage: Hong. Var: sadi. Usage: Hari. Var: sansun. Usage: Bulla, Mudang-Tage.salii bijen. pine and bamboo groves. piisa-saliin. pine grove.
saliivi. to inhale. Ant: salin.
push/stuff something inside. Suitcase ho tarii
atan mi santi la saliito. Pack your shirts tightly in the suitcase! Gitu-nanii pa pillow mi saliito pe. Please insert a pillow to block the place where I'm lying.
salunn. medium-sized cucumber.
adj. green. Anii hii salyido. The leaf is green. Aji
lyapyo sii salyi riiji. These fields are verdant. salyi kiina [sa´lyi kina] adj. deep green.salyi koman adj. dark green (deep green).
salyo n. bark of a tree. Etym: from *sanii, 'tree', *alyo, 'skin'.
salyo sanii n. (Bot.) Fragrant Himalayan Champaca/Champa Tree (Michelia champaca) a variety of tree whose fruits are used as
spice and medicine. salyo ahi. n. fruit of the Champa tree. Encycl: comparatively bigger than *sanii tero, more or less of the
same size as *samper. The fruit, which is dried at maturity and contains reddish seeds, may be used in the
preparation of *pike pila. Var: salyo, selyo. salyo pakun. (Zool.) Orange-breasted Green Pigeon (Treron bicincta).salyo pakhun. shell of the fruit of the Champa tree, which can be used as a food condiment in *pike (*salyo pakhu pike). salyo piken. variety of *pike using the flower or fruit of the Champa tree dried and cooked with *pila, pork and chillies.
lyopi salyon. variety of *salyo tree or seed . yorjesalyon. variety of *salyo tree or seed .
saman. (Bot.) variety of tree used to make
sama beniinn. particular ritual chanting of priest performed at the begining of *Myoko festival.Var: sarma beniin. sama mahanii n. particular ritual of during which the priest burns the limbs of the monkey that has been hunted for *Myoko.sama piniin. inaugural ritual of *Myoko performed by the *Myoko priest. Encycl: as part of the ritual, wooden logs equaling the number of housholds in a clan are piled up at the residence of the owner of the ground on which *yugyan altar is located. These logs are used at the ceremonial end of Myoko to roast rice in a closing ritual called *empii koniin. Syn: sama pidu; sama paniin.
samann. pine needle. Syn: piisa-saman.
samivt. to consider someone weaker than oneself. Syn:sami-sapo. Mi mi hiinkane sami-sapoyo. Don't think that others are weaker!
sampen. (Bot.) variety of tree used in ritual
functions, especially at the
beginning of *Myoko festival. See: sama pinii.
samperahi n. (Bot.) variety of forest
wild fruit used as spice, esp. in the preparation of *pike pila, and as
sampern. sticks of split wood. Encycl:
sticks of split wood overlapped in square shape are used in the
inaugural ritual of *Myoko to perform *sama piniin .
sampivt. to stuff in. Syn: sanpi-sala.
log. Syn: sanii-sampo.
large, chunky or discoid
white bead made of chank shell (Turbinella pyrum).
necklace worn by women
consisting of a single row of seventy to eighty chank
shell beads.Syn: sampo tasan.
lelun sampu n. large
ornamenting the lower section of a *sampu tasan. Syn:
sampo. milo sampu n.
chank shell beaded
necklace worn by the priest (*nyibu) during important
rituals. Syn: milo sampo. sanje sampun. smaller chank shell bead used to make
upper section of a *sampu tasan. Syn: sanje sampo .
sampya n. (Agric.) wooden tray used in a paddy field to transport soil or manure from one spot to another.
medium-sized turquoise-blue glass bead. sampyu pagen. melon-shaped *sampyu bead . sampyu
peronn. a small type of *sanpyu bead,
cylindrical in shape. Syn: sampyu perun. sampyu tasann. necklace worn by women consisting of
rows of small turquoise-blue glass beads .
san 1. vi-r. to live life. Siidin atan hii more-giira ho hiisan diila sandu. Deers
subsist by eating grass in forests. 2. vi. to
grow ; to mature (intransitive).
sanvt-r. to push/stuff
-sanvsuff. partially. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subject carries out the action indicated by the verb partially, i.e. in such a way that it favours one persons, faction, etc.
sana v. to
breathe rapidly and heavily, as from running fast; to pant; to gasp; to be breathless.
sanbavi. (of a plural subject) to live
or grow up together. Syn: sanbo-gyanba.
sanbiin. branch, of
a tree. Usage: Bulla. Var: sanii aha-abya. Usage: Hija.
sanbovi. to grow up with someone. sanbo-gyabovi. to live or grow up together.
sanbyanadj. (of cultivated plants/plants or fruits which are used by humans) matured; fully grown.
sanbyunvt. to plunge and soak.
sanchavi. to grow up.
sanchiSee: diiran sankhan
sanchunvt. to hide, as in some sack-like or bag-like object.
long wooden post. siiran-sandan. posts used for making houses, in general.
Ude-nesu miinananii pa sanii-sanko hokii
siiran-sanda pordu. One cuts pillars from
tree logs to make houses.
to bring up by nurturing, educating or training; to rear (child). Ngiimi ka sangiinii, ngiika ane. It is my mother who
educates me. sangii-gyagiivi. to prosper; to become wealthy; to
fare well; to have good fortune. Miyu-lumi
sangii-gyagiikodu pa Subu Murun uyi mi miidu. One performs sacrifices at *Subu and *Murung so that people
sangon. 1. life, in general. 2. life, envisaged in a future; career.Syn: sango-hago. sango-gyagon.
sangonii 1. n. living thing that is of uncomplete growth. 2. adj. (in a nominal or relatived clause) of uncomplete growth. Etym: from *san, 'to live life', *-go, 'to skip, to forget to include'. Sangonii sanii. Tree of uncomplete growth.
sangonii 1. n. plant having a hollowed trunk or stem, or whose trunk/stem has formed a hole by branching. 2. adj. (in a nominal or relatived clause) having a hollowed trunk/stem, as of a tree. Encycl: the Apatanis traditionally believe that hollowed tree trunks are the abode of spirits, and as such should not be disturbed nor cut down. Sangonii taser. Cane having a hollowed stem.
sango tapen. fastener for necklaces made of a flat, round or
square chank shell button, usually worn on the nape of the neck .
sanii [´sa:ni:] n.
tree. Siika apu si nii sanii hoka gii nii? To
which tree/plant species does this flower belong to? sanii aha-abyan. tree branch. Syn: sanii aha. sanii ingyinn. (Bot.) manioc (Manihot esculenta). Syn: sanii alu.
From : Tanii 'sanii' (tree) and Hindi 'alu' (potato). sanii-sanko ['sa:ni ´săko] n. forested areas.sanii taron. (Bot.) Woody Vine (Actinidia sp.), commonly known as Kiwi tree plant. sanii teron. (Bot.) Sichuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum sp. possibly Z. rhetsa), a small tree species whose tiny fruits are commonly eaten as spice. Encycl: the Apatanis use the outer pod of the immature green fruits, which are very similar to *yorkhan fruits but have a smooth skin. Etym. literally "tree pepper". Syn: santu tero. saro saniin.
(Bot.) banyan tree.
saniin. leaf.Var: yanii; sanii. Nyimii hii nyibo pa, sanii hii kiidi pa. Female children are for foreigners, just as tree leaves are for the soil. [Apatani proverb]
1. breathing; breath. 2. blowing of air (as in a whistle). Traffic police ka
whistle saniin mi tapala la, ngo cycle/paji domoto. I heard the whistle of the traffic police and stopped my bicycle.
sanju n. way of living; lifestyle. Syn: sanju-gyaju.
sankon. 1. residence; dwelling; place for living. Syn: sanko-gyako. 2. living. Gyunyan tiigo mi
ralyanma koda, miyu sanko nyima. Without the performance of
rituals there would be no place for humans to live. [Apatani saying].
sankon. (Bot.) variety of shrub yielding small fruits resembling Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum sp.). sanko bachon. (Bot.) variety of small tree.
sankun. (Bot.) variety of tree from which a poison is extracted.
sankhann. 1. variety
of rubber derivative obtained from a tree that is used for coating the
inner surface of storage vessels to render them waterproof. 2. generic term for rubber, gum, or
even plastic. Sankhan
harpo. Plastic bucket.
(Bot.) Privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium). Var: sankha melyan. halyan sankhan melyann. (Bot.) Hibiscus
(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis). Var: sankhan molyan .
sankhann. small wooden post hammered
into the ground as a demarcation marker for house compounds. ajisankhann. small wooden post hammered
into the ground as a demarcation
marker for paddy fields.
sankhe pagen. blue or dark blue, slightly translucent, small
melon-shaped glass bead. See:page.
sankhiin. (Bot.) Eurya acuminata var. euprista, a
vegetable dye. Encycl: the leaves produce a brownish yellow color after
boiling. Also used to enhance
the dyeability of *tamin due to the presence of aluminium in its
sankho [´săxo] adj. smoke-dried or grilled over the fire, as of meat. Yo sankho. Smoked/grilled meat.
tree and other mixed plantation area with or without bamboos, usually located at some distance from the village. Encycl: mostly planted with pine or oak (Castanopsis sp.). Owned collectively by the members of one household or one patrilineal segment (e.g. brothers and first cousins). Usage: Bulla, Mudang Tage. Var: sadi. Usage: Hari. Var: salii. Usage: Hong.piisa-sansunn. pine grove.
sansunadj. weedy, as of a field. Syn: biiyo.
santan. wooden plank. Encycl: in former times the thin layer sheet obtained from pine timber (Pinus Wallichiana) was used for roofing houses. santa uden. house wih
santavi. to live along with
santern. variety of large, turquoise-blue, chunky glass bead . santer pagen. melon-shaped *santer bead . santer tasann. necklace worn by women consisting of
a single row of *santer and *sanpyu beads. Etym: from *tasan, 'bead' .
santeradj. fully grown.
santin. (Bot.) variety of tree used for firewood and house construction .
santivt. to push tightly. Suitcase ho tarii atan mi santi la saliito. Pack your shirts tightly in the suitcase!
santin 1. adj. (of persons) of same age. Santin ajin. Friends of same age (or same age group).
peer. santin anyann. peer. santin
babon. smaller *babo attached to the
front veranda of the house .
santun. tree. Tamo santu chalakendo. Tamo can climb trees. Syn: sanii. santu khiilann. (Zool.) variety of squirrel, bigger in size than *kiidi khemu, having an orange chest. Syn: khiilan. santu payun. variety of natural resine obtained from a jungle berry. santu teron. (Bot.) Mountain-Pepper (Litsea cubeba), an evergreen tree of the Lauraceae family. Etym. literally "tree pepper". See: sanii tero.
santunn. generation. Santun ronnge. One generation. santun-anyann.
sargyavt. to diverge from one's normal, usual or expected route. Tana, Tari mi ado hokii kapate la lenda sargyagiine. Tana took a different path after seeing Tari from a distance (i.e. Tana didn't want to meet Tari).
sargyunn. (Bot.) variety of cane, viewed as a subtype of *taser. See: sarlan.
sarann. (Agr.) remaining roots in a paddy field.
sarin. (Bot.) variety of tree whose sap may cause skin irritation and redness. Ngiimi
sari anobiine. I got stung by a *sari tree.
sarinn. 1. cough. 2. (Med.) common cold. Sarin do ha? Do you have cough and cold?
sarin savcn. to cough.
satu sarinn. whooping cough.
sariin. knot, as of a tree; hard lump where a branch grows out.
n. teacher. Etym: from English ‘Sir'.
sarjavt. to tear off by hand. Tapu ngiika tarii mi sarjabiine. Taru has torn off my shirt (by hand tearing). Syn: sarja-saya.
sarkhe-sarse n. (Agr.)late ripening variety of millet. sarkhon. (Agr.) millet stalk. See:
sarkovt. to tear open
(an envelope, etc).
sarlann. (Bot.) variety of cane
species, viewed as a subtype of *taser. See: sargyun.
sarma See: sama.
sarma-puchunn. (Agr.) mound of millet refuse dumped after harvest.
variety of blue, slightly translucent, medium-sized glass bead. saro pagen. variety of blue, slightly translucent, medium-sized melon-shaped glass bead. See:page. saro tasann. element of the *bimpu tasan necklace consisting of several rows of *saro, *saro
page and other small or medium-sized glass beads .
firewood; bamboo to be used for burning. Syn: saro yasan.
saro saniin. (Bot.) banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis), a
plant used in certain rituals. Encycl: three leaves of *saro were sometimes used
as a protection during ordeals by fire. Syn: saro.
sarpavt. to look down; to
criticise; to reprobate.
n. 1. balloon. Sarpu daka alyi supa hankele sarpu si sapidoku. The balloon got flattened as air was removed from it. 2. any ballon-like object such as the foam formed by soap in water, etc. 3. (Anat.) bladder.
sarse [´sar´se:] n. 1. (Bot.) fingered millet (Eleusine coracana) . 2. (Agr.) the late ripening variety of millet, cultivated on
open dry fields (*lapyo) and in garden plots. See:mipa. sarse
pakhen. (Agr.) woven bamboo tray used for drying millet . sarpu-sarsen. (Agr.) early ripening variety of millet.
sarsiiadj. bland; flavourless; tasteless; watery. Yo si sarsiido. The meat has no flavour.
satin. 1. resin of pine wood. 2. pine wood containing resin, or from which resin is oozing. By extension, torch made of a stick or a bundle of pine wood on which pine resin is applied. Encycl: believed to have some medicinal value for toothache and
boneache; also used as an ointment for massaging.
umbrella. From: Assamese 'sati'. Syn: ase.
satiinii [´sa´t:ini] n. aged pine
trees (Pinus wallichiana) which are preserved, to which mythological
beliefs are often attached. Var: satenii.
sayepron. (of two or more items) 1. one different/distinct). 2. each. Nyikhan
saye bu'nge! Take twenty each!
sayivt. to swallow a liquid at a single gulp; to swallow up; to gulp down.
sen. back-strap of plaited cane, in general. Can be used for carrying firewood and other large things, to maintain tension on a loin loom., etc. Usage: Hija. Var: she.
Usage: Bulla. chiichin sen. back-strap harness for a loin loom .
sevt-r. to pull something by dragging it, such as rope, long plank, bamboo etc.
sebivt. to drag something for someone.
sebovt. 1. to drag something along with someone. 2. to help someone to drag something.
sebovt. to pull something by dragging it across something.
sekhoadj. sharp, e.g. as a fragment of *yabyo bamboo which may cut one's finger.
selii vt. to drag something in. Ant:selin.
selinvt. to drag something out. Ant:
sembin. leaf that has partially withered, e.g. after being plucked from a tree.
semo [´se´mo] n. (Bot.) 1. variety of wild
cherry. 2. variety of wild cherry tree. Encycl: growing in open forests between 1600 and 1800 m and
planted outside the village in bamboo groves. Makes a valuable firewood as it produces a lot of charcoal. Also cultivated
for its fruits. The Apatanis use them also for making fences to enclose their
fields. Var: sembo. Usage: Hari, Hija .
senvi-r. 1. to grow skinny, as of an animal. 2.
to shrivel up or become dry, as of a plant.
seniinn. pulling out, esp. things of relatively small size.
sepiivt. to pull something
breadthwise or from the sides.
sepon. thin long cut caused by some sharp edge scratching over a body tissue.
-ser [sər] vsuff. strangled. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something becomes strangled as a result of the action denoted by the verb. Hoser. To
strangle with a rope. Paser. To strangle someone.
setuvt. to stop something
by an act of pulling or dragging.
sha chirin. variety of highly prized Tibetan
sword (*chiri). Etym: from *shado,'male lover'. See: pinji; hulu.
shadon. boyfriend; male
lover; boy or man who can be a prospective boyfriend or lover. See: yapa. Usage: *shado (for males) and *mundo (for females) are used in poetic
expression only. In conversational language, *miha stands for boy friend or male lover, *nyimun for girl
friend or female lover. Var: sado. See: mundo; miha.
shati n. grape.
shiivt-r. to scratch (with
shiivt-r. to catch hold of.
shorvt-r. to complain. Mo sarkar shordo. He/she complains to the Government. kam shorvt. to look/appeal for a job or work.
shorvr. to hang vertically.
shorvr. 1. to lie down. 2. to measure horizontally.
shu vt-r. 1. to rear an animal; to breed and raise an animal. 2. to rear a child; to take care of a child.
shuhuadv. continuously, as of something that is flowing or being generated. Sukun daka yasi si shuhu hulin-hukando.The well water is continuously filled up (by some spring).
shuhunn. hanging bridge.
si [si:] 1. n. urine. 2. vi-r. to urinate. si sitan. urinal; place/area for urinating.
si [si:] n. spring used as a source of drinking water by humans or animals.
si [si] 1. dem. the, this. Gramm: simple proximate demonstrative used to refer to an object or person close to the speaker. Occurs immediately after the marked noun. Piita si pado. The bird is pecking. Sika ude si ngiikii. This house is mine. Police si
public kokii kamo laga-lale lalado. The police takes excessive bribes
from the public. 2. pron. this. Gramm: speaker-proximate demonstrative pronoun. Si piita dore. This is a bird. Si ngiika ude. This is my house. See: sika. 3. adv.here (close to the speaker, to denote an action that is taking place
at the time of speaking or writing). Syn: siikasi. atan si dem.
these. Gramm: speaker-proximate plural demonstrative. Occurs immediately after the marked noun. si tapron. loc. this one also. si yapron. loc. rather this one.
si vt-r. to sing. Biisi sito!
Sing a song! Syn: biisi si.
-si [si] vsuff. take one's turn. Gramm: suffix indicating that the subject takes one's turn to carry out the action indicated by the verb. No diisito. You eat now/next (i.e. as it is your turn now/next).
-si [si] vsuff. secret; hidden. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the action denoted by the verb is carried out in a secret or hidden way, concealed from sight or notice. Syn: -si...-si. Hensi-hensi. To keep one's thought to oneself, without letting others know about it.
-sivsuff. join. Gramm: result suffix indicating that two things are joined as a result of the action denoted by the verb. Syn: -si...-me.
-si...-havsuff. difficult/hard/unpleasant to [do]. Gramm: manner suffix
indicating that the subject carries out the action denoted by the verb
in an uneasy or unpleasant manner. Also derives an adjective with the basic
meaning 'uneasy to', 'unpleasant to'. Ant:-pyo.
-si...-mevsuff. join. Gramm: result suffix indicating
things are joined as a result of the action denoted by the verb. Syn:
-si...-sivsuff. one after the other. Gramm: temporal suffix indicating that the action identified by the verb occurs over a period of time through the repetition of similar events in regular succession. Molu asi-asido. They are coming one after the other.
sia hamann. (Bot.) Chameleon Plant (Hottuniya cordata), a
wild vegetable having a sour taste. Encycl: Houttunya cordata is maintained along the
river bank and agricultural bunds. It is eaten as a vegetable and for medicinal
purposes. Its roots help checking soil erosion. Var: sian haman .
sida adj. horizontal. Usage: Hari.
sika See: siika.
sikii [siki]pron.its(of it; belonging to it). Siika ipa atan si sikii masu ha? Aren't these excreta belonging to it? sikii sipron. this.
n. urinal; toilet; place
for urinating. Syn: sita; si-sita.
siko hoSee: siiko ho.
wrinkle. Syn: lyikun-lyiri.
to stitch; to sew. From: Assamese 'sila'.
simbyan. raised platform
of the veranda made of a cover of bamboo stems split lengthwise in
equal halves. simbya alon. joist supporting the horizontal
patan. bamboo splits used to
the platform. byago simbya n. platform
of the front veranda. uko simbyan. platform of the rear veranda. simbya
miiduvcn. to prepare,
repair or renovate the open platform, especially in preparation for
sacrifices taking place during a *Murun.
simi [si´mi]1. dem. this. Gramm: simple proximate demonstrative used to refer to an object or person close to the speaker; accusative case. 2. pron. this. Gramm: speaker-proximate demonstrative pronoun, accusative case. Simi nunu chinsudu ha? Do you know this? Simi ne khiidu? How much does it cost? atan simi dem.
speaker-proximate plural demonstrative. Accusative case. Occurs immediately after the
marker noun. Yagii
atan simi lato. Take (collect) these baskets!
sinvt. to nourish someone with liquid or semi-liquid food; to serve someone a drink. Tatu murun miiko hoka miyu atan mi o sindo. Tatu is serving beer to the people who came for a *murun. Syn:
-sinvsuff. dried. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something is dried out as a result of
the action denoted by the verb. Syn: -pi. Besin. To dry something by exposure to a light source.
sini tasinn. (Zool.) variety of aquatic larva resembling that of a dragonfly .
siniinn. singing. Syn: biisi siniin.
n. feeding of someone with liquid or semi-liquid food; serving of a drink to someone. anyin sinninn. breast-feeding.
sinyi [siɲi] dem. these two. Gramm: speaker-proximate dual demonstrative pronoun. Occurs immediately after the marked noun. See: hiinyi.
sipun [sipũ] n:time recently; these days; in recent times; nowadays. Sipun ngo ano rengela dato. These days I have been feeling really tired.
Sipun Apa ano alu-alelada. These days Apa is very busy.
siti n. letter. From: Assamese ‘sithi'.
taye kebiitii. His elder brother wrote a letter for me.
siyinvt. (of a plural subject) to sing
together. Syn: siyin-sitin.
this night. Var: siiyo.
sii [´si]n. 1. cow. 2. ox. Sii dore. One cow/ox. sii atun. calf. sii hiibon. bull. sii hiiniin. cow. sii ikha [´si i´xa] n. cow dung. sii lutiin. grazing ground for cows. sii-subun. cattle. sii-subu boniin. name/title given to the groom's
clansmen who take the groom's mithun to the bride's father during *ari paniin ceremony.Syn: subu bonii. sii talanadj. unidentified color, possibly brown/orange for coloured cows. sii yon. beef. See: siibo; siinii.
sii [si] cop. to be. Gramm: perfective and imperfective copula, roughly equivalent to the verb 'to be'. Links two noun phrases, or a noun phrase and a noun, or a noun and a nominalized clause. Can be followed by temporal suffixes and a few other verb suffixes.
Nanya nyi ajin sii ha? B: IIn,
mo anyi ajin siidu. A: Are Naku and Nanya friends? Yes, I think so. Nanya niinyi ajin sii
nyan an? Are you and Nanya friends? Taki sii
kebiinenii. It was Taki who wrote it. Hiila sii koda. If it is so. Siika si piigo anii sii ha? Will it be useful?
sii [si]vi-r. to die.
sii [si:] vt-r. to scratch.
sii vt-r. to unroot (a plant or
siivt-r. to seize with one or two hands; to grasp; to
catch hold of. Tara mi siitubiilyato. I kept holding Tara (by holding his clothes).
sii vr. to dry.
vsuff. plural. Gramm: verb suffix used to
indicate that the action denoted by the verb is performed jointly by several
subjects. Occurs before the negation, tense and continuous form markers. Taki Tallo nyi school inbasiido. Taki and Tallo are going to school together. Apa Tapu nyi abasiimane. Apa and Tapu did not come together. Simi nunu chinsiidu ha? Do you know this? Kadi la kako ho, nyachu
ami nyi kapusiido. Their lips and eyes are similar if
you watch them closely. Talo Rambo nyi
yasan gobasiilado. Talo and Rambo are lifting firewood together. Syn: -siinya.
-sii [si] vsuff. thing that can be [do]ne, or has to be [do]ne. Gramm: nominalizer, derives a noun indicating a thing that can or should be done through the action denoted by the verb. Diisii. Eatable. Hangii diisii
sii ha? Do you have something to eat? Miisii. Task/work.
-siivsuff. although; even (though); even if; despite (that). Gramm:concessivesubordinating suffix used to link two contrasting statements, or potentially contrastive statements.Often occurs in combination with suffixes *-jalo or *-jalopa. No rengii siidudo, hojalo yasan khonye-he tatoran. You must be feeling tired, still cut/split some more firewood! See: -siijalo; -siijalopa.
-siiadjsuff. Gramm: suffix added to adjectives and existential verbs, indicating that the speaker is not sure whether the property/quality/state denoted by the adjective is the case, but assumes or presumes it may be so. Often occurs along with particle *lo. Yasi dariisiido ha hiila uye kakato. Go
and see if the water is clean! No ayasiido lo? Are you
fine? Molu ayasiidu lo. I hope they are fine. Mo kedo byo lo ayasii lo. It's good if (at least) he
is writing. Unka Delhi
ine koda ayasii lo. If
Unka went to Delhi then it's alright. [Note the difference: Unka Delhi inne, ano ayado. Unka went to Delhi, that's good.]. Molumi lama-kiilin bijalopa ayasii lo. It doesn't matter even if we gave a little to them. Niiriipaye diigo dosiido cho. (I guess that) there is adequate food available.
-sii loSee: -sii.
siibi [´si´bi]n. (Zool.) monkey, in general. siibi-bidiin. (Zool.) Macaque sp. or brown short-tailed monkey, mostly referring to Assamese Macaque
(Macaca Assamensis) but also including Rhesus Macaque (M. mulatta),
Tibetan Macaque (M. thibetanus) and Arunachal Macaque (M. munzala). Var: siibi-bidin.
siibi-binii [´si´bi´bini] n. female monkey. siibi-bipo [´si´bi´bipo]
n. male monkey.
siibi-bisern. (Zool.) Capped Langur (Trachypithecus pileatus) .
siibi dinkhun. monkey skull. siibi kotern.
(Anat.) ischium (strongest and lowest bone in pelvis).
siibin [si´bĩ] n. (Zool.) goat. siibin ahan. (Med.) scabies.
siibin-bimpo [si´bĩ ´bimpo] n. billy goat. siibin-binnii [si´bĩ ´bĩni] n. nanny goat. siibin
yo [si´bĩ ´yo:] n. mutton. kiidi siibinn. (Zool.) Mainland Serow/Chinese Serow (Capricornis miineedwardsii), a endangered species of goat antelope, found especially in Talle Valley area .
n. (Zool.) cattle bull. Ant: siinii. siibo paniinn. sacrificial slaughter of an ox.
siibyon. (Zool.) variety of large, brown-chested flying squirrel. See: siichi.
siichan n. earth; land. In a narrow sense, describes the Apatani valley and the landscape that is visible from it. In a figurative sense, can stand for the entire land upto the limits of the world. siichan miidon. universe; world; cosmos.
siichin. (Zool.)variety of small, white-chested flying
squirrel whose main body is similar to that of a rat. See: siibyo.
siichon. 1. spring; water source of a stream that gushes out of the hillside or mountainside. 2. water canal diverted from a water source. aji siicho n. drainage canal of a paddy field .
siichurn. (Zool.) stag; any type of Cervidae having branched antlers.
siidon. (of a mithun or cow) heifer; fully-grown young ox. Subu siido. Mithun heifer.
n. water channel, in general. Can denote either an irrigation channel diverted from a main river or stream, or a water channel running through or outside the village .
siigan-siilin [si´gă si´lĩ]n. streams and rivulets. Var: siigan-siilyi. siigan latiniin. repairing or maintenance of water channels. Var:siigan latidu.
n. (Agr.) bridge of bamboo plank in
siijavt. to tear off something by scratching.
-siijalovsuff. although; even (though); even if; despite (that). Gramm:concessivesubordinating suffix combination used to link two contrasting statements, or potentially contrastive statements.Ngo luposiijalopa, mo takinma. Even if I tell him, he won't listen. Syn: -siijalopa. See: -sii.
siika [sika] dem. this. Gramm: simple proximate demonstrative, genitive case, used to refer to an object or person close to both the speaker and the addressee. Immediately precedes the marked noun. Siika pen mi ngiimi bipe. Please give this pen to me. Siika ball mi ngiimi lato pe. Take this ball for me! Var: sika.siika anyidem. 1. these two
(used for both people and things). 2. pron. they two (used for both people and things). Ngo siika anyi agin ho inbolakinma. I can't go along
with them. Niihii pe siika anyi ka room? Which is their room? siika anyi sipron.
these two. siika
atandem. these (used for two or more people or
things). siika atan sipron.
these (used for two or more people or things). siika ... si.dem. this (close
to both the speaker and the addressee). Siika ude si ngiikii. This house is mine. siika si 1. pron. this; this one. Siika si
ude. This is a house. Siika si piigo anii sii ha? Will it be useful? 2. adv. here(close to the speaker, denoting an action that is taking place at the time of speaking or writing). Var: siikii si. siika ...so 1. in this (locative case, contracted form of 'si ho'). Siika window so oye nyangato. Stick your head out of the window!
2.adv. here (near the speaker, denoting an action taking place in past or future). Syn: so; siikii so.
siikanepron. this much. Gramm: indefinite pronoun of quantity (as size, amount, etc.).
siiko ho [siko´ho] adv.phr. on/at it; on its body; in its possession. Siiko ho nii na giidonii kakato. Look at what it has on its body! Var: siko ho.
siikhavt. to scrape with one's nail.
altar made of splits from *kiira tree which are constructed for a
*murun next to the performer's house and used for sacrificing mithuns. Syn:subu siikha; byago subu siikha. siikha raniinn. making of a *siikha altar. Etym: from *ra, to bind, esp. firewood or relatively heavy objects'. byago siikhan.*siikha altar constructed at the entrance of the house. Syn: byago subu siikha. uko siikhan.*siikha altar constructed at the backyard of the house. Syn: uko subu siikha.
siikhiin. sand, in general (esp. coarse particles, or mixed with pebbles). siikhii-yalann. gravel.
siikhiin. (Zool.) Indian Porcupine (Hystrix indica) . Syn: siikhii-pukhii.
siikhon. water channel or duct, in general. Can be used to denote the duct inserted in the bund of a paddy field to let out the water (*hubur), the trench dug into a paddy field for providing shelter and spawning ground for fishes (*parkho/*hete), etc. Usage: Hari, Bulla. Var: siiko. siikho latiniin. maintenance of field channels. Syn:siikho latidu. padin-siikhon. confluence; place where two streams or rivers join. Lembo
ho parda a'nge, inka lembo padin-siiko ho lachi dalyi bo'nge. Go
straight on the road, turn left at the confluence of the two streams.
(Anat.) nape of the neck for animals, esp. referring to that body part of cattle which is hit by a blade during sacrifice. See: lampin.
siilin n.(Agr.) irrigation channel diverted from a main river or stream. Var: siilyi.
siilinn. passage connecting fields.
siilinadj. (of mithuns and bulls) difficult to control or domesticate; untamed.
(Zool.) Large Indian Civet (Viverra zibetha) .
siiliin. bamboo water receptacle.Var: sulu.
n:time today. Siilo ngo ude ho duto. Today I stayed at home. siilodaadv. today. Siiloda miido hunedo. It may rain today. siilo-biilyon:time lately; recently; in recent times. Var: silo biilyo. siilo
lyiyepaadv. till today. Var: siilo lyihepa.
siilyinn:time this evening. No siilyin danyi
akumarampa ngiika ude ho chalyato. Come to my home this evening before
sunset! siilyin dalyin:time this afternoon. siilyin-siiron:time nowadays. Syn: siilyo-biilyo. siilyindaadv. this evening. No
siisi home work miido koda, siilyinda Indian Idol kalakendo. If you do
work now, you can watch Indian Idol in the evening.
siilyon. waterside; shore; bank.
cow skin; cowhide; leather.
siiman. corpse; dead body. Siima mi alibiidoku ka ah. The corpse has been buried (lit. 'one has buried the corpse').
-siimavsuff. are not. Gramm:
aspectual suffix combination indicating, of a plural
subject, that an action or event is not realized or that a quality/property is not the case. Molu ayasiima. They are not
keeping in good terms with each other.
-siimanevsuff. you (pl.)/they did no [do]. Gramm:
perfective aspectual suffix combination indicating, of a plural
subject, that an event was not completed in a non proximal past; second and third persons. Tallo Tapu nyi abasiimane. Tallo and Tapu did not come together.
siimer [si´mər] n. silt.
siimi n. pond; lake.
siimyon. (Zool.) variety of carnivorous
vsuff. you (pl.)/they [did]. Gramm: perfective aspectual suffix combination indicating, of a plural subject, that an event was completed in the past (usually non proximal); second and third persons. Molu biilyo pakasiine. Yesterday they fought among themselves.
n. cow (as opposed to bull). Ant:
siinyan [si´ɲă] n:time this year. Siinyan ngiika aji daka emo si ensu adin do. This year, my paddy crop is of dud rice only. siinyan-siilo
[si´ɲă si´lo] adv. in modern times; nowadays. Syn: siinyan
siinyin. (Zool.) Ferret-Badger (Melogale sp.), either Chinese Ferret Badger (Melogale moschata) or Burmese Ferret Badger (Melogale personata)
siipern. pond. ngiiyi siipern. fish pond. Ngiiyi siiper si yasi kacho riila do. The water lies stagnant and dirty in the fish pond.
n. (Zool.) Chinese Pangolin (Manis Pentadactyla). Encycl: A nocturnal mammal, feeding mainly on termites and ants by digging the nests. Chinese Pangolin, within the Indian limit, is confined to the Northeastern region .
siipin. sewing; embroidery. siipi pivcn. to sew.
siipun. (Zool.) variety of carnivorous mammal (unidentified). Var: supu.
siipyan. (Zool.) Dhole/Indian Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus) or Jackal (Canis aureus) .
(house) pillar or post of a house, esp. outer pillar. See: tuli. siiran sandan. posts used for making houses.
siiriin. variety of horn bugle used in various rituals.
siirinn. (Zool.) otter (Lutra
siiron:time this morning.
siisi [´sisi] n:time now; just now. No siisi home work miido koda, siilyinda Indian Idol kalakendo. If you do home work now, you can watch Indian Idol in the evening.
Var: sisi. siisida.
adv. 1. now,
just now. Ngo siisida ude ho adukuran. I have just
come back home. 2. recently. Siisida kii la ngo ano renge hempa dane. Recently, I have been
feeling really tired.
n. (Zool.) Small Indian Civet (Viverra indica).
siitan [sită] pron. like this; this way. siitanpapron. like this; in this way. Tagyan
henter ela, ngiika ajin mi ngo siitanpa business partnership ho cheat
miilyido la hemato. I'm immensely upset, I never thought that my friend
would cheat me in our business partnership like this.
siitiicop. was; would be. Gramm: perfective or irrealis form of the copula *sii. Kiilin siitii
-siitiivsuff. you (pl.)/they [did]. Gramm:
perfective aspectual suffix combination indicating, of a plural
subject, that an event was completed in the past (usually non
proximal); second and third persons.
siitin [si´tĩ] n. (Zool.) Himalayan Black Bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) .
siitinn. 1. warrior's shield made of buffalo skin; armour. Encycl: the only defensive weapon of the Apatanis. Rectangular in
shape, traditionally made of several layers of mithun or buffalo hide. After being well tanned the skins are stretched together over a bamboo framework and tied with cane. A strap made of plaited cane is fixed in the back as is also a cane hand-grip set in the upper right corner. The strap is looped over the right shoulder and the shield hands at the body left side, covering and protecting it. The hand-grip located in the upper right corner allows the left hand to hold the shield firmly, while the right hand is free and can hold a spear or a sword . 2. ritual element of sacrificial altars imitating a shield .
vsuff. [do]! (addressed to a plural subject). Gramm: verb suffix combination indicating an order, command
or request given to two or more persons. Nunu embin mi tachesiito. Divide the rice among
yourselves. Ant: -siiyo.
siitu vt. to hold firmly. Loder mi siitubiilyato. I kept holding Loder (by holding his clothes).
siiyinn. (Zool.) variety of carnivorous
mammal, possibly a wildcat.
siiyon:time this night; tonight.
-siiyovsuff. don't [do] ! (addressed to a plural subject). Gramm: verb suffix combination indicating a prohibition
addressed to two or more persons. Miibasiiyo!
Don't do [it] together!
so- [so] class. long, thin, often potentially flexible objects or living things. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for counting 1. long, slender objects such as
ropes, hair, threads, long thin rods (iron rods, cane rods), wires, bamboo strips, pens, pencils, etc. 2. snakes and other crawling animals, fishes. soye/soe,
sonye, sohinnge, sope, so'ngohe, sokhe, sokanuhe, sopinye, sokoahe, solyanhe.
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 long, thin objects/animate beings. Etym: from *yaso,
so[so]1. dem. at this; in this; on this. Gramm: speaker proximate demonstrative, locative case. Mobile so
Anyo ka number mi oye telinto pe. Please dial Anyo's number for me on
this mobile phone. Balu so, yalan acho-acho do. This garden is full of stones [lit. 'in this garden there are plenty of stones']. 2. adv. here (something or somewhere near to the speaker). Ngo so kiiran adu. I often come here. Diipyonii atan
so linto ! Those who have taken their
meal, come here! Syn: siika so.
so [so] post. 1. in; at. Gramm: locative
case marker marking time nouns or nouns/clauses referring to a particular period
of time, indicating a moment envisaged as a span or duration rather
than a point, within which an event takes place. Miyu santun so. In the generation of
men. 2. when. Gramm: temporal subordinator marking a subordinate clause as a time within which an event takes place. Bilo, gari-paji ka abudomaran so, miyu atan
ka abudu linmaran so, ngunu Ziro si ano kapyoyatii. In the past, when vehicles
weren't many and people were less numerous, our Ziro place was very beautiful. Ngiika imimaran so ngo miigo mi iche miilyatalyi. Before I sleep
I will do a little work. Ngunuka diinan-tanannii, yasi-yamu pa
sali-sapa mi pako so ngunuka Ziro si alo-lolinlyi karmyanja mi ano
When we cut forests for basic necessities or for
food, day after day we're making our Ziro place become more ugly.
to play; to spend the time leisurely. 2. to joke; to crack jokes. 3. to
celebrate. Milo piilo ho Dree sodu. In July one
celebrates Dree. 4. to flirt; to have an affair with someone. Mo nyimun sone. He had an affair with a girl.
to play with others. 2. to help someone play something.
sobovt. to move across to play or celebrate something.
sodunvi. to roam around, as an escape from boredom. Syn: sote.
soi-somiadv. casually; for recreation; as a pass time activity.
sojann. (Zool.) generic name for small lizards, skinks and geckos, including Flat-tailed Gecko (Cosymbotus platyurus) and Khasi bent-toed Gecko (Cyrtodactylus
khasiensis). See: sopin.
sokavt. 1. to play. 2. to flirt. sokaniinn. 1. play; game. 2. flirt.
sokern. circle cane, a ritual element of sacrificial altars. Usage: Hari .
sokin. chair. From: Assamese 'soki'.
sokiipost. from here. Old Ziro sokii la niimkane na adodo nii? How far is Old Ziro from here?
soko n. (Anat.) jaw, of humans or animals. Syn: so.
sokon. 1. place for playing; playground. 2. place for celebrating; ceremonial ground. soko-ngarkon. place for amusement/entertainment; recreation ground; entertainmenent ground.
sokunn:num. (of long, thin objects/living things) one. Gramm: by enumerating only, i.e.
counting without reference to a particular object, as in school. Otherwise *soye/*soe is used. See:so-.
sokunvt. (of a plural subject) 1.
to play together. 2. to celebrate together. Dree alo ho sokun siisa! Let us celebrate Dree festival! sokun ajinn. companion in games and recreation; playmate. Syn: sokun siinii.
soku-sokavt. to tease; to trick. Syn: soku-solya.
sokhann. ritual element of sacrificial altars.Usage: Hari.
sola-ngarlaadj. (of a person) humorous; having humour; funny. Mo, Obing hiilyan, luju-lumyo ayado, ano sola-ngarladu ta. He is a nice fellow, polite and humorous, just like Obing.
solann. (Zool.) Asian Golden Cat, Temminck's golden cat (Catopuma Temmincki). Encycl: a mainly
nocturnal wild cat whose diet consists chiefly of rodents, birds, reptiles as
well as small ungulates such as goral and barking deer. In India, only
Arunachal Pradesh and parts of Assam have golden cat habitats .
solin. part of the hind leg of a slaughtered mithun running from the lower part of the thigh just above the knee down to the hoof, viewed as a sacrificial share. Encycl: the eldest married woman of the sponsor's *uru (by birth) is normally entitled to receive this share.
to move out to play. 2. to move outside to celebrate. Peniin solindu. Form or go in a *penii procession.
solyavt. 1. to play in a habitual or expected way. 2. to celebrate in an usual way. solyaniinn. habitual/usual way of playing or celebrating something.
somen. (Zool.) Palm Civet. Includes species such as Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Paguma larvata .
some n. ritual element of sacrificial altars, a bamboo stick whittled in such a way that the strips form a tassel at one end. Also decorates the top of a *babo mast, hanging from the broader end of the *cholo element . Usage: Hari. Var: jompu.
somin-ngarminvi. to entertain oneself; to recreate; to play; to have fun.
sonvi-r. to move through, or along a rope or some
horizontal pole; to move up and down on a pole or a rope, especially by using the hands and feet.
sonepron. (of long, thin objects/living things) how many. Gramm: interrogative pronoun used for a countable number of items or specimens in a collection.
sonyoadj. (of a long, thin object/living thing) 1. short (in length). Tabu sonyo doke. The
snake is short. 2. slender. Ant: soro.
sonyovt. to practise playing.
n. (Zool.) 1.
lizard, esp. Asian House Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus). 2. other lizard species such
as skinks (Mabuya sp., Sphenomorphus sp.), Dafla Mountain Lizard (Japalura
andersoniana), etc. . sopin-sojann. (Zool.) lizards, in general.
sopoadj. slim. Var: sopo-giinyo.
vi-r. to slip.
vt-r. to tighten by pulling, as a rope, thread, etc.
sorjinvt. to stretch.
sorpiivt. to place or dispose something
sorpyun vt. to tighten and hold
soroadj. (of a long, thin object/living thing) long. Tabu sorodo ke. The snake is long.
sosan:qual. (of two or more long, thin objects/living things) 1. distinct; different. 2. one for each. Gramm: post-nominal
qualifying noun. Etym:
from*yaso, 'cane, rattan'. Ngiinyipa pen sosa riibiilya. Please buy one pen for each of us.
sosheradj. (of a sound or voice) strident; shrill; piercing.
sosinn. metallic wire or cable, esp. steel wire rope.
sosi-sosiadv. one after
sotevi. to roam around; to hang around. Kiije sotesa. Let's go for an outing!Nyajeyo,
(ngo) sotegiichi ke. Put that face off, I'll take you for an outing. A: Nunu nii miidu? B: sotedo. A: What are you doing? B: roaming. Syn: sodun; sote-sodun. Ngiika vacation ho ngo sote-sodun la date. I roamed around during my vacation.
to play for the first time. 2. to
celebrate for the first time. Dree mi supun hii 5th July 1967 ho Nenchalyang ho sotugiitii. The Dree festival was celebrated for the first time at the community level on July 5th, 1967.
1. n:num. (of long, thin objects/living things) one. Gramm: used for referring to a particular object. When enumerating, as in school, *sokun is used instead.
Mopa ngo pencil
sohe riibiidu. I have bought a pencil for him/her. Var: soye. See:
so. 2. n.
old unit of measure used in barter
transactions consisting of one knife or one hen. See:pachu, parohe.
suvt-r. to draw (extract
water or air). Syn: supa.
su [´su]vt-r. to follow or spy someone; to seek information; to carry out an investigation. See: ru.
su-class. granary. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and
certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for counting granaries. suye/sue,
sunye, suhinhe, supe, su'ngohe, sukhe, sukanuhe, supinye, sukoahe,
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 granary/granaries. Etym: from *nesu, 'granary'.
-su [su] vsuff. 1. by oneself; to oneself. Gramm: reflexive suffix indicating that the subject is acting by itself; or is performing the action indicated by the verb to himself. On transitive verbs, it often indicates that the action of the verb is directed back to the subject. Ato miisuto! Do it yourself! Var: -sii. Usage: Hari, Hija.Ngo miiposiito. I cut myself. Ngo yasan takele ala tabyasiito. I hurt my hand as I was splitting the firewood. Hiika ho ngo ngiila cell phone mi bapasiito. I lost my cell phone there (by your side). Ali mi yamu
chabyasiitii. I got my leg burnt from stepping on the fire. 2. (with a plural subject) each other. Barmii anyi hii henkosiisudo. The two sisters love each other.
-suvsuff. detach. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something is detached from a whole as a result of the action denoted by the verb. Josu. To detach something by lifting it.
to follow or spy someone on someone else's behalf; to seek information for someone.
to draw water from
the bucket for someone.
subovt. to draw water across something.
subun. (Zool.) mithun (Bos frontalis) Var: siibu. subu anen. mithun with horns equal to the span
from thumb to middle finger, counted as four mithan value in the traditional bartering system. subu
atun. mithun calf. Subu atu dore. One mithun calf. subu boniin. name/title given to the groom's elderly
clansmen who take the groom's mithun to the bride's father during *ari paniin ceremony.Syn: sii-subu bonii.
subu henii n. main ritual chant recited by a priest during the performance of a *murun. subu ipan. mithun dung. subu
mitinn. Darjeeling Oak (Quercus lamelosa) .
subu nyanyiSee: nyanyi.subu pengen. mithun calf
without horns, counted as one mithun value in the traditional bartering system.
subu riigo n. plaited cane loops fixed on the horns of a mithun to tie it before sacrifice. subu saha n. rope made of cane wicker for tiying, fettering
or hobbling mithuns. Var: subu siiha. Usage: Hija. subu sin. spring, puddle or pond where mithuns gather to drink. subu-siin.
cattle. subu siibon. mithun
bull. subu siido n. young or half-grown mithun.subu-siidohen. young
mithun with horns equal to the breadth of two fingers, counted as two
value in the traditional
bartering system.subu siikhan. ritual
altar where the mithun to be sacrificed for *siikha botinto is brought and
tied up. subu siiniin. mithun
cow. subu tadon. common term denoting the sacrifice
of a mithun 1. during the month of Murun, a
ritual of somewhat lesser importance than *Murun proper. 2. during a rite performed at the groom's family's *lapan as
part of the wedding ceremony, for which a mithun and a cow are slaughtered. Syn:
subu tadu; subu tanii. subu tayan n. (Zool.) horsefly. subu tuten. (Bot.) variety of wild strawberry. Syn: subu tute jilyun. dorin subun. mithun with horns equal to the breadth of
3-4 fingers, counted as three mithun value in the traditional bartering system. uyi subun. (Zool.) yak (Bos grunniens).
n. path; lane; narrow way, in general. See: leyu.
sudu [su´du] n. bamboo section used as container for various purposes: 1. container for carrying fetched water 2. mug. 3. steam-cooking pot. 4. storage container for dried chilly powder,
salt, or any other spice. 5.mortar .sudu yormii sudun. bamboo
mortar with pointed bottom for grinding chilly. alo sudun. salt container kept
inside the house. pakho sudun. variety of bamboo container used for
smoke-drying spicy food.
payu sudun. bamboo container used as receptacle
for adhesive. See: payu.
suju siimeradj. fertile/rich in resources, as of a land, area, etc.
sukavt. to make an investigation; to inquire into.
community well; community water pond. sukun piitinn. well entrance. sukun sankhiiSee: taker.
sulun. fence; wall. Encycl: fences are made mainly with
bamboo and durable wood (including Salix sikkimensis, Pyrus pashia, Ligustrum
sp., etc.). They are repaired once a year in late November through collective action. sulu miikhu vcn. to demarcate by erecting a fence or a barricade. sulu pecharn. (Zool.) small
passerine bird of overall dull light brown colour resembling a warbler,
possibly Black faced warbler (Abroscopus shisticeps). sulu sikhiin. (Agr.) agricultural labour team whose first duty is to
manage the fencing of fields. sulu kageniin. male leader of a
*sulu sikhii who supervises the construction and maintenance of fences. See: narun. sulu miitiniin. construction/repair of a *sulu fence. See:narun denii.
sulu See: siilii.
sulyi-sumeadj. not straight; askew; crooked.
sulyuadj. empty and silent, as of a place. Anga Mumbai tokuhankele ude si sulyuja. After Anga left for Mumbai, her home looked more empty and silent.
supavt. to draw (extract
water or air). Sarpu daka alyi supa hankele sarpu si sapidoku. The balloon got flattened as air was removed from it.
supun. blaksmithy. supu puvcn. to forge. supu punii miyunphr. blacksmith.
supun [su´pũ] n. 1. community
comprised of all Apatani settlements. Supun butii more.
Apatani forest land. 2. the place where all Apatani settlements are located, i.e. the Apatani Valley itself. 3. by extension, any human community (such as Nyishis, Adis,
etc.). 4. world. Ngunuka
Ziro ganda si supun hoka kapyoja ganda ako. Our Ziro is one of the world's
most beautiful places. 5. Apatani ancestral community/place. Iipyo supun. 'Iipyo', the most ancient
ancestral community/settlement of the Apatanis (presumed to have been located beyond Tibet). 5. by extension, place in general. Supun miilan gyakerjalopa, ngunu Ziro
kapu hokii kapama. Wherever we may travel on
Earth we won't find any place like Ziro. supun ho advphr. in the world. supun melan n. part of a penalty imposed for the customary settlement
an offense that goes to the village authority. supun
pintan. container used for
distributing rice beer during rituals . supun tarii n. variety of sleeveless fringe
white shirt richly decorated. supun niinn. particular moment of a *murun preceding a mithun sacrificial ceremony, when
every close kith and kins of the solemniser go to *lapan in ceremonial
attires. Encycl: nowadays it has become an occasion for the female members of the family to display their dresses and ornaments.
supunvt. to smear animals to be sacrificed
with rice powder. subu
supundon. ritual smearing of a
mithun prior to its sacrifice during a *murun.
supunniin n. the ritual act of of smearing or spraying of rice powder
(*yatan) alongwith pure rice beer (*o ala) on the animals to be sacrificed. Var: supunnii. alyi supunniin. ritual smearing of rice powder over the sacrificial pigs during *Myoko festival.