ma [´ma:] 1. interj. no; nope. Gramm: negative interjection. May occur alone to answer a yes/no question, or at the begining of a sentence to express disagreement with someone else's previous statement. 2. is not; are not. Gramm: negative form of the copula *sii. Mo Tapu ma. He is not Tapu. ma siiteinterj. Aya, no! Usage: interjection used to express the speaker attitude of disapproval.
-ma [ma] vsuff. not. Gramm: negative predicate suffix. Occurs before the tense markers in a predicate suffix chain. Mo amane. He/she didn't come. Ngiika aki kapanii hii pulumane. The dog whom I saw was not white.
-ma ke anSee: an.
ma vt-r. to spend/invest in something.
mabo n. term of reference for 1. son-in-law (daughter's husband). 2. brother-in-law
(sister's husband). 3. all husbands of *atabo. 4. all husbands of classificatory sisters (*barmii) regarded as juniors. 5. husband's sister's
husband. 6. father's
brother's daughter's husband. 7. father's sister's daughter's husband. mabo apin biniin. declaration of engagement. Encycl: a ceremony when bride's parents arrange a lunch party
for the declaration of engagement. All important decisions regarding marriage
take place on the same day. Syn: apin
binii; mabo inchinii. mabo inchiniin. formal presentation of the bridegroom to the bride's parental home, which is the first of a series of ritualized visits involving the bridal couple and their close kin. Encycl: the bridegroom, accompanied by his father, two witnesses known as *gyuntan and two friends, makes the bridewealth payment (*ari) of one Tibetan sword (*ilyo chiri) and one mithun to the bride's brother (or father). The bride's parents reciprocate by giving a white shawl with orange borders known as the son-in-law's shawl (*mabo pulye). On that occasion, four key-persons are selected among members of the bride's patrilineage (*uru) to be the recipients of the bride price. For that reason they are collectively referred to by the term *ari (or *are) whose literal meaning is 'price'. This group is comprised of one *diiran (most often the bride's father, though there is no obligation for him), one *lache, and two *ari mechu (or *ponyo), the three latter being chosen among the bride's classificatory brothers. The bride price is shared among them according to their status: the *diiran receives the greatest share, followed by the *lache, then the two *ari mechu. Each reciprocates with substantial gifts to the bride's parents including a fixed amount of paddy. Later they are entitled special shares from the animals slaughtered during *Myoko or *Murun by the bride's family. mabo pulyen. locally
produced white cloth with orange/yellow borders, which is given by the bride's mother
to the groom as a token of betrothal . mabo yajun. ladle filled up with beer that is presented to the bridegroom by the bride's parents during the *mabo inchinii ceremony .
(by humans) to cry out; to bellow.
majin. Tibetan prayer bells without clapper, traditionally used as valuables, ritual artefacts and barter objects. Encycl: formerly used as prestige goods and currency, it seems that the memory of their origin, the commercial route through which they were obtained, and the names of their successive owners were preserved. Nowadays *maji bells have lost their value as currency unit and are used mostly for ritual purposes. maji kaniin. person who examines the quality of *maji bells that are presented as gifts during the marriage ceremony (*mida) and as such is entitled to
receive gifts from the groom's family. Maji poye/pohe. One Tibetan bell.
makun vt. to heap; to bring together into a pile.
malann:qual. many. Gramm: qualifying noun following another noun or a pronoun, with the overall sense 'many N'. Syn:
abu. malanjaadj. most; largest (share). Syn:
abuja. malanjapaadv. most; mostly. No malanjapa bii'nge. You take the largest share!
rooftop; roof vertex.
Molu, inka lanchan malo
giiniibo ude ho nyan dudu nii. They live in that house with a red rooftop. malo abun. ridge pole.
malo [malo]conj. or;
either...or. Gramm: coordinating conjunction used to connect two words, phrases, clauses or sentences together, each presented as an alternative to the other. Si nii aki ha, malo yaki ha? Is this a dog or a fox? Narun mi
subu bako nan hempa do, malo sii ya bakotii yu ah. It appears like a
mithun has broken into a fence, or is it a cow who did it? malo-kaloheadv. kindly; with due consideration. Malo-kalohe siika siti mi Taka mi bihe pe. Kindly give this letter to Taka.
vsuff. will not [do]. Gramm: temporal suffix combination marking an event that is not going to happen in the proximal future.
mamo vt. to encourage. Usage: for kids, instead of *tamo which is used for adults or persons older than the speaker.
man vt-r. to roof; to cover with or as with a roof.
manvi-r. (of a plant) to creep.
vsuff. [did] not. Gramm: negative form of the perfective aspectual suffix, marking an event that was not completed in the past
(usually non proximal); second and third persons.
mannii 1. n. (Bot.) creeper. 2. adj. in a relative or nominalized clause) creeping, as of a plant.
mankon. (of a house structure) ceiling battens.
manpon. horizontal roofing beam.
manyan n. ceremonial friend usually belonging to *Misan (Nyishi or Miri)
community. Encycl: ceremonial friendship concluded between Apatanis and Nyishis involves the exchange of mithun and valuables, thus resembling the
ceremonial friendship pacts of Nyishis' political and social system. baro manyann. group
consisting of one individual's *manyan.
-maranvsuff. not yet [done]. Gramm: non achievement aspectual suffix combination, giving the overall meaning 'not yet'. Ngo siiro kii apin diimaran. I haven't eaten yet from this morning.Ngo Tanii agun lunii kone tare kapamaran.I haven't seen a single person who speaks apatani yet. -maranpa vsuff. before [do]ing. Ngo amaranpa mo aneku. He arrived before me. Var: marampa.
mari n. (Bot.) variety of tree used in rituals.
marlan n. rust. Usage: Bulla. Var: harti. Usage: Hari.
hammer. From: Assamese.
masapart. about. A: Old Ziro, sokii la, ano adodo pe ha? B: Sokii la 7 km masa do. A: Is Old Ziro very far from here? B: It's about 7 km from here.
-masavsuff. Let us not [do]. Gramm: negative form of the hortative suffix *-sa, used for suggesting not to perform a collective action including the
speaker. Siinyan ude miimasa. Let us not construct a house this year.
masiicop. am not; are not; is not. Gramm: copula negator. Negative form of the copula *sii. Inka jiji coat giiniibo si Oman aba masii ha ? Isn't that man who is wearing a blue coat Oman's father? Var: masu. Usage: Hari. No Diyobar alo sii masii
ha enna inkinnen nii? Siilo diyobar ha enna? You were leaving on Sunday. Is today Sunday?
mataadj. flat. Var: meta.
mevt-r. to search,
to look for. Niinyi mi Anya medo he. Anya was looking for you (two). Nunumi ngo
meladoto. I was
looking for (to) you. Nii photo pa no frame medu? You are looking a frame for which photo?
mevt-r. to join; to
connect. me-nanii n. any instrument/device used to connect or hold two objects together.
mebivt. to search someone/something on
someone's else behalf/for someone. Molupa duko mebitii ha? Have you arranged accomodation for them?
mebovt. 1. to search along with others. 2. to help someone search something.
mechi-meyivt. to inspect minutely; to scrutinize; to search closely or completely.
mechun. 1. particular part of the bride price, which two selected persons belonging to the bride's close kin are entitled to receive. Either a
brother or first paternal cousin of the bride, a member of the
bride's patrilineage (*uru) or a person not belonging to the bride's clan. Syn: mechu ari; ari mechu; ari ponyo.2.by extension,the recipients of that part of the bride price known as *mechu. Altogether with *diiran and *lache, they are in
charge of assisting the bride during the wedding and later the married wife for
the duration of her marriage. mechu yakhann. traditional
unit of measure corresponding approximately to 15 kilogramms of
unhusked rice, which is expected to be given as a contribution by a
married woman's *mechu on certain occasions such as *murun.
mechuadj. small; small-sized. Syn:
atu. Usage: *atu is used more often than *mechu.
medern. 1. purity; purification; cleaning (in a ritual sense; i.e. eviction from evil spirits). 2. purification ritual performed during *Dree festival. meder agyan n. altar constructed for performing *meder.meder nelo n. literally 'house of purity', label given to the place of worship for the local version of modern Donyi Polo religious movement.
medin-mepivt. to connect; to join.
mekha vt. to search for something in vain, unsuccessfully.
melen. traditional procedure to resolve unsettled disputes between two individuals, including homicides.
melivt. to kill someone to avenge oneself or to avenge someone else.
meliniinn. killing as revenge.
melin-mehavt. to search out. Apin dii-nanii pa yo iche melin-mehato. Search out some piece of meat to accompany the meal.
melii-mehavt. to search around.
Bije donii si
narun miinii-nanii pa khe kenma ke, bije iche melii-mehato. The bamboo
lying here is not sufficient for erecting fence, manage some
more (by searching around).
men vt-r. to kill; to murder. Hogya taker hii no lo
menkone. The leopard was killed by you.
menbivt. 1. to kill on someone's behalf/for someone
mendinvt. to kill intentionally/with a purpose/deliberately.
mendiin. (Zool.) buffalo.
meniin. one who searches; searcher (unspecified). meniibon. the one who searches; searcher (specified).
meniin. (Zool) sow (female
see, to find out. Kheta atan si dogyo-dolyi dotokula, history kheta mi mepakuma. I could not find the History book as books are randomly mixed up.
mepin. (Bot.) Plantain (Plantago erosa), a common weed eaten as a vegetable. Syn: mepi haman.
mepin. ritual element of sacrificial altars.
mepuvt. to swallow something whole; to swallow without chewing.
mesivt. to join; to connect. mesi-memevt. to make ends meet.
meta See: mata.
metin. ritual performed during Dree festival to protect humans from Pyodu Biinyi, the famine god. Usage: Hari. Var: metii.
meyinvt. to search together.
mi/-mi [´mi]part. 1. accusative and dative case
marker. Gramm: accusative case
marker for direct and some indirect objects; also dative case marker. Suffixes pronouns and demonstratives. Ngo ngiika ajin mi tasan
soye mi bito. I gave one necklace to my friend. Ngo momi luriila. I was
speaking to him. 2. (in comparative statements) than. No momi kayeyado. You are taller than him/her. Aki ami mi hargayado. The dog runs faster than the
mi [mi]1. n. stranger; alien; outsider (home, family, etc.). Mi inneku ha? Has the stranger left? Mi inpa miidoku ha? Is the
stranger leaving/ going to leave? Ngo, mi kokii help lasaniin mi ano byado. I
very much hesitate to seek help from others. 2. adj. other; foreign. Mi miyu. Other/foreign person or people. 3. n. person, in general. Nunuko mi
duye ha? Was there anyone at your place? mi akopron. someone. ato-mi n. relatives and non-relatives (guests, outsiders, etc.). Ato-mi henmapa yo ayin-ayin bito, milo mii'ngu-miiredo hiila henkodiike.
Give meat equal to both to the relatives as well as to the other guests, otherwise
the latter may feel being discriminated.
-mi vsuff. extinguish. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the action of the verb results in something being extinguished, as a fire or a light.
mibevt. to blink the eyes; to wink the eyes rapidly. mibe-mibevt. to flutter one's eyelashes; to bat one's eyelids quickly in a repeated way.
micha adj. blind. Gramm: usually occurs in semi-reduplicated form *ami-micha.
Ngo ami-michanii miyu kone kapato. I saw a
blind man. No michama koda hiimi kapakendo cho. If you are not blind you
should see that.
michan See: yamu michan.
midan. 1. marriage, from the formal ceremony of engagement to the last ritual following the wedding ceremony. 2. part of the marriage process, the ceremony performed by the bride's parents during which many gifts are offered to members of the groom's family in order to reciprocate the gifts previously offered by the groom's family. dachi midan. ordinary or middle-sized marriage. Syn: tama
siipa. konchi midan. small-sized marriage. Syn: peja siipa. datu midan. large (also most expensive) marriage. Encycl: a fully-grown mithun (or its money equivalent) is required from the groom's parents in case of *datii mida, whereas a heifer is usually sufficient for the *dachi type.The number of guests who are entitled to receive various contributions in food or gifts is also higher. Var: datii mida. Syn: santii
siipa. nyanii midan. collective
term for affinal kinsmen. mida inniin n. particular moment of a *murun ceremony, when the same day as the mithun sacrifice one elderly man accompanied by a few children from *piinyan ajin, *kobii and *koro families visits the house of the solemniser with pieces of meat (*yo aso).
midin n. (Agr.) nursery for
paddy, where seeds are sown and made to sprout. Encycl: nurseries are kept under water throughout the year
and regularly manured. midin
paloniin. (Agr.) nursery raising done in Feb. March. Syn: miidin lilonii.
miginn. successful/lucky hunter.
migunn. one of the two major oral genres of Taniis (altogether with *miji).
*Migun primarily consists of non
ritual oral literature, including stories relating to the creation of universe and mankind, the migratory epic, as well as more recent historical events. Unlike *miji, it can be narrated by any knowledgeable person out
of ritualist context, in a prose identical or closer to day-to-day speech.
mihan. synonym for *ajan bulyan, those young men who assist the older *bulyan (*akha bulyan) in their
work by such tasks as carrying messages. Encycl: in olden days, *miha were in certain cases entitled to destroy
the disputed property of a person or party who refused to conform to the decision of a *bulyan. See: bulyan.
mihan. boyfriend; male lover.Si Unka ka miha. He is Unka's boyfriend/lover. See: shado.
mihi [´mihi]n. wife; spouse (term of reference). mihi bii vcn.to marry; to take a wife; to get married. Usage: Hija. Ngo mihi biiduku. I am married.Var: mihi bu. mihi la vcn.to marry; to take a wife; mihi laniinn. marriage (lit. 'wife's taking'). mihi-milo n. husband and wife; married couple.
Mo anyi mihi-milo sii pe
ha? Are they a couple?
mihinn. contribution; gift; offering; donation. Syn: mihin liniin.
mihu kaniin. one who performs divination (unspecified); diviner.
mija n:qual. eldest one; one who is the eldest (among). Gramm: qualifying noun following another noun.
mijern. (Zool.) variety of tiny fly or winged insect resembling a mosquito; midge. Syn: taru mijer.
mijin. one of the two major oral genres of the Apatanis
(altogether with *migun). *Miji are primarily
recitations or chants performed by male priests (*nyibu)
in ritual context, including fragments of myths and healing chants. They are
recited in a specific or "ritual" speech (*miji agun) which is known only to Nyibus and
requires interpretation. See: migun. miji agun n. ritual speech; ritual language. miji-migunn.
stories, tales, myths
particularly to *miji and *migun).
mijin. priest who performs certain rituals, esp. during marriage (*mida). miji enko n. basket filled with rice that is offered to the priest as compensation for his services. Syn: tani enko.miji pintan. rice beer
gourd container used only by the priest while performing ceremonies. miji
ladle made of gourd used by the priest to
distribute rice beer during rituals.
mijin. orphan. Syn: miji-atu.
miji lanchun. (Anat.) Adam's apple. Syn: langu artu.
mijun. (Anat.) eye crap deposited in the corner of one's eye. Gramm: usually occurs in semi-reduplicated form *ami-miju.
(of a person) seemingly idle, inactive or inert. Syn: mijun-gojun.
miku-milyavt. to express one's dissent or disagreement by eye blinking or winking.
medium; person who is said to be possessed by a spirit, esp. the soul
of someone having died of unnatural death, and is thus capable of
foretelling, usually by falling in trance. Var. mikhii ronii. Usage: Hija.
(Anat.) tear; teardrop. Syn: ami-mila.
milann. (Bot.) variety of weed
found in paddy fields.
(of health condition) serious.
Ranka, milin ano diima hendu, Tamo ka lukoneniin momi hospital ho
baliigiitu hiila. I hope that Ranka's condition is not very serious, Tamo told me that he is
being admitted to hospital. Var: milyin.
milinvi. to live frugally. Var: milyin.
n. husband (term of reference). milo sampon. chank shell beaded necklace worn by priests (*nyibu) and males during
certain important rituals. milo invi. (by a female) to marry; to get married. Ngo milo induku. I am married.
milo [milo] 1. part. if not. Gramm: particle following verbs and copulas. Gives the sense of the negation of the conditional coordinator. Pen ho
ink giima milo pencil lo kelyato. Write with a pencil for the moment if
pen has no ink. 2. conj. otherwise. Gramm: coordinating
conjunction used to connect two words, phrases, clauses or sentences
together and present each as an alternative to the other. Usually occurs in warnings and exhortations, the sentence or clause containing *milo representing the less desirable alternative. Ato-mi
henmapa yo ayin-ayin bito, milo mii'ngu-miiredo hiila henkodii ke.
Give meat equal to both to the relatives as well as to the other
the latter may feel being discriminated.Var: miilo. Usage: Bulla.
milobo [´milobo] 1. n. male human individual, in general. Can be used to refer to a boy or an adult. Inka milobo hu na? Who is that guy? Ant: nyimii.2. n:qual. male. Gramm: qualifying noun
following another noun. Can be used for humans or animals. Gora
milobo. Stallion.Ant: nyimii. milobo
affinal kinsmen of the husband of a married couple, comprising all
people considered as *aku (maternal uncles), i.e. the mother's brothers,
father's mother's brothers, mother's mother's brothers and their
respective descendants. Encycl: along with *nyimii nyanii, this group of
kinsmen is traditionally under an obligation to render a married couple
assistance in emergencies. See: nyimii nyanii.
iinga milobon. son. See: iinga
milo piilon. seventh lunar month of the year, roughly corresponding to July-August. Nowadays commonly used to refer to the month of July. Syn: mipya piilo.
milo riijin. (Bot.) Diplazium esculentum, a fern species used in the construction of altars. Syn: milo riije
milya bariSee: robari.
to have a sudden onset of pain in an eye, as when something is thrown into it.
milyon. (Anat.) eyelid. Gramm: usually occurs in semi-reduplicated form *ami-milyo. Syn: ami-milyo. Etym: from *ami, 'eye', *alyo, 'skin'.milyo amun. eyelash. Syn: mibyo amu; mibu amu.
milyoSee: yamu milyo.
(Bot.) Zebrinus (Miscanthus sinensis), an herbaceous perennial plant whose long slender leaves are commonly used for tying paddy seedlings .
-min [mĩ] vsuff. as play; for pleasure; as pastime. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subject performs the action denoted by the verb as play, pastime or leisure. Hime atan hii ball tuminsiidu. The kids play ball
to kill time.
-min [´mĩ] vsuff. win. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the subjects wins over the object in performing the action indicated by the verb.
-min...-yin vsuff. casually. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subject performs the action denoted by the verb in a casual way, without particular reflection or care. Kemin-keyin. To write in a casual way.
adj. rich; wealthy; affluent. mingojaadj. richest. mingo-tamoadj.
powerful, in terms of wealth and social position. mingoyaadj. richer. mingoyadovt. tobecome richer. Ant: aroyado.
n. 1. wealth; richness. 2. one who is rich (unspecified).
mipan. (Bot.) Eleusine coracana, the early ripening variety of millet usually harvested in the first half of August. Encycl: transplanted seedlings of millet are mainly grown on terrace bunds and in
garden plots. Var: mipe. See: sarse.
n. (Zool.) tom cat.
Syn: ami-mipo; Ant:minii; ami-minii.
mipyan. (Agr.) generic term for the early varieties of rice found in
Ziro. Encycl: Somewhat darker in colour and
harder than the common variety *emo. Includes local varieties such as *pyanyi, *pyapu, *pyare, *pyatii, *pyatii kobya. mipya
seventh lunar month of the year. Nowadays commonly used to refer to the month of July, or July-August. Syn: milo piilo.
miren. (Agr.) one of the
three varieties of maize traditionally cultivated by the Apatanis. See: nitii; tanyi.
mirin. 1.(Anat.) line of the eyelid. Gramm: usually occurs in semi-reduplicated form *ami-miri. Syn: ami-miri. 2. variety of body colour pattern for mithuns (either male or female). Describes an animal of overall white colour with a black patches encircling the eyes.
(Agr.) powdered millet. Ane mirii riido. Mummy is pounding millet. mirii
(Agr.) millet grinding stone. Encycl: among the Apatanis
only millet is pounded using a stone mortar.
Misan [misã]n. non-Apatani
hill people (with special reference to Nyishis and Hill Miris). Var: Mishan.Misan
(Bot.) Solanum indicum, an eggplant species. See:
byako, siitii byako. Misan emon. (Agr.) late-ripening
paddy. Var: Mishanemo. Mishan Nagan. the Nagas. Misan pulyen. variety of shawl. Misan tamin. (Bot.) Ageratum
conyzoides, a plant species bearing blue
or moderate purple flowers.
(of a woman) old.
sweet. From: Hindi.
miten. in olden
days, owner/master of slaves; patrician; person of high social
status. Var: miti. Usage: Bulla. See: miira.
Nii na, hangii herumapa sii ha, miyo-miyo kapa da nii ? What's the matter,
you appear very lethargic- something wrong? miyo-miyoin vca. (of a person) to move or walk in a lethargic manner; to walk about idly.
n. man, human, person. Syn: neha. miyu akon:num. one person. Syn: miyu
kone. miyu atan [´miyu atã] n. humans. miyu ipan. human excreta. miyu-miman. human beings. miyu tangenphr. group of people; some people. Syn: miyu tonge.
miyu ka [´miyu´ka:]
vcn. to divine; to foresee. miyu kaniin [´miyu´ka:nĩ] n. divination.
mii[´mi]vt-r. 1. to do; to make;
to construct; to prepare. Nunupa ngo apin miibiidu. I have prepared a meal for you. Miihe. Go and do something! 2. to work Ngo biilyo kii miigo
miiladoku. I have bee working since yesterday. aji miivcn. to work in fields. Aba, ama nyi aji miidu. Daddy and mummy cultivate the
-miivsuff. made into powder. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something is made into small bits or powder as a result of the action denoted by the verb.
-miivsuff. worn out. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something is worn out as a result of the action denoted by the verb.
miibavt. (of a plural subject) to do/act
together. Syn: miiba-luba.
miibevt. to make something suddenly release, as the mechanism of a trap.
miibevt. to be bored to do something.
miibivt. to do something on someone else's behalf/for someone. Abu kela la
niimi henga-henkhadopa miibitama sii ke. I will not trouble you by
writing too long.
miibiadj. proper/preferable way of doing.
miibivt. to spill over; to fritter away; to waste something unintentionally.
Niimpa na (no) yasi miibibiilyiniin? Why have you spilt the water?
miibinvt. (of a plural subject) to do something jointly with others.
miibovt. 1. to do something along with someone. 2. to assist or help someone do something. Miibope. Help me to do it! Ngo siika atan lo aji ronge miibokokindo. I shall require help from them once in my field. Syn: miibo-lubo. miibo-lubovt. to take part in; to associate with; to participate; to partake.
miibu-miigavt. (of baby or animal) to treat tenderly; to coddle; to pamper.
miibunvt. to soak something in the
to do something in an inappropriate or inopportune way.
to cause a burn; to cause something to burn. Ngiika ali mi yamu miibyane. I burnt my foot [lit. ‘the fire
burnt my foot'].
miibyanvt. to do something in addition to a work
done previously. Syn: miibyan-miiti.
miibyuvt. to cause annoyance or
irritation. Syn : miibyu-lubyu.
miibyuvt. to make dirty, as a liquid substance. Var:miibe.
to raise. 2. to move up to do something.
miichann. rightful/righteous/virtuous act or deed.
Miichan ho miito. Act in a just, upright manner! Syn: miichan-luchan.
miichevt. to split; to make a division
by breaking. Syn: miiche-miiye.
miichevt. to interfere.
ingenious; skilfull; inventive. miicher miivcn. to do something in a skilfull/ingenious/inventive manner. Opo balu miicher loda miido.
Opo is very inventive in gardening.
miichin. (Zool.) variety of bird of prey with grey and white plumage, possibly Armur falcon (Falco amurensis). miichi pinkhen. (Zool.) variety of bird of prey.
miichivt. to get or reach something placed above.
miichivt. to hurt or injure the eye.
miichinvt. to know how
to do something.
miichun. large scale fire accident. Usage:Hija. Var: myuchu. Usage: Bulla.
miidanvt. to touch. Syn: miine.
miidavt. to do something correctly.
miidevt. to do something for a long
miidervt. to correct. miider la miivt. to do something correctly. miiderdu pa miivt. to put forth effort to correct/rectify something; to make a point of rectifying something.
miidivt. to do something in an appropriate or advisable manner. miidipaadv. appropriately; perfectly; just as is needed. Syn: miidiko. Hapoli lembo mi miidiko miirobiine. Hapoli roads have been properly/appropriately widen up.
miidinvt. 1. to do something with a purpose or intention.2. to act with a plan/pre-thought/prior knowledge; to act with premeditation.miidin kiilinadv. intentionally.
n. rain. Var: mudo.miido-dodun. raindrop. Miido-dodu duyido. Raindrops are falling. miido tapunn. (Zool.) variety of small bat that always hovers in the air and can be seen especially when it is likely to rain. Etym: from *miido, 'rain', *tapun, 'bat'. miido-yasin. weather.
Arda miido-yasi aya lyimii lo, balu narun mi miichi. If weather
conditions are good, I'll construct the fences of kitchen garden tomorrow. dopun miidon. drizzle taking place in the sunshine.
miidovt. to do something for feeding oneself.
Mo ngiika aji mi miidodo. He
is tilling my paddy field (i.e. not on wage but to feed himself or his family).
miidun. time, moment for doing something.
miiduvt. to damage; to destroy.
miidu-miiyen. bangs; hair extending down the forehead, as worn by girls and young women.
miidunii 1.n. one who damages/destroy (unspecified). 2. adj. (in a nominal or relatived clause) damaging/destroying.
miiduniin n. destruction; damage.
miigann. cockfeathers; tuft of long feathers in the tail of cock.
miige [mi´ge] n. pincers made of hairpin bend bamboo split; tong. miige tartuvcn. (metaphorical) to divorce (lit. 'to break tongs'). Encycl: as per tradition whenever a married couple wants to divorce, the husband or the wife breaks a tong into two pieces, indicating that their matrimonial relationship ends from that point of time.
done which is beneficial or profitable.
miigiivt. 1. to lead/guide
Ngunu school ho
Inter School Tournament miikagiima ke, siinyan ngunuko miigiisa. Inter
School Tournament was never conducted in our school, let's conduct it
in our school this year. 2. to take someone along with oneself to do something. 3. to cause. Une miigii. To cause injury (to someone).
miigon. fireplace; hearth. Syn:
miigon. work or task to be done; pending work or task. Syn: ingo-miigo.
miigo miivcn. to do some work; to accomplish or perform a task. Miigo miipepato. Do the work to completion! Ngo biilyo kii
miiladoku. I have been working since yesterday.
miigovt. to do something first (overtaking or excluding
others); to do earlier/faster than others. Disung Ampi mi miigobiine. Disung finished [the work]
faster than Ampi.
miigovt. to miss one task or work while doing something.
miigo-biilavt. to do things one by one in a systematic way.
miiguvt. to do something differently from before; to change
one's way of doing something. Syn: miigu-miiyu.
miigunn. visible trace of an act.
miigurvt. to protect or guard.
miigyavt. to make a mistake; to commit
blunder, offense or crime. Syn: miigya-miilya.
to help one another in turn-wise.
miigya-lugyan. wrongdoing; misbehaviour.
miigyovt. to add or mix. Syn: miigyo-miilyo.
miigyovt. to do someone a favour that he/she has the obligation to return.
miihaadj. hard/difficult to do. Syn: miiru-miika. Siika aji si miiha-miika. This field is difficult (to till).
miihavt. to move in to do something.
miiha-miikhavt. to bother; to pester; to annoy.
miihivt. to put/keep something aside.
miihiivt. to do excessively.
miihii-miikhevt. to change one's action, work or activity.
miihovt. to mark; to make a sign.
miihovt. to offend by doing.
miihuvt. to wake.
miihuvt. to stimulate something through action.
to bother; to disturb; to upset. 2. to get someone to desire something.
miijavt. to finish to
do something; to complete doing something. Mo engineering miijabiine. He/she managed to finish his engineering studies.
miijavt. to tear.
miijevt. to do actually or in reality. Etym: from *jije, 'true, real, actual'.
miije-miijevt. to do something over and over again.
Hiimi miije-miije miimapa so ato. Don't do that over and over again,
miijer-miiberadj. sparing; careful in spending or using.
miiji n. (Bot.) variety of wild tree used as a medicine, having a very bitter taste.
miijon. award/benefit/result/price of an
to follow someone; to chase. miijomonniinn. chase; pursuit.
miijun. way of doing something; way of acting; behaviour; manner. Moka miiju si karudo. His/her manner is not good. miiju-lujun.
manner; behaviour. Syn: henju-miiju.
miiju-miimyon.1. activities linked to tradition and culture; traditional ways.
Ngunu Tanii ka miiju-miimyo mi alyumasa. Let's not give up our Apatani traditional ways! 2.(of a person)general habit or behaviour.
miikavt. 1. to do something as a trial or to see what happens. Ngo miiterja mi
tried to put forth my best efforts. Syn: miika-miira. 2. to compete (through action). Miikasiisa. Let's compete (in doing something)! miika-lukavt. 1.
to try. 2. vt.
to compete. Miika-lukasiisa. Let's compete!
miikanvt. to do something for a long time or beyond the allotted time.
miikivt. to bend.
miikinvt. to show how to do; to
miikon. place for performing a task. Inka ude atan si nii miiko pa yu? What are those houses for?
miikovt. to open.
hagya mi miikoto. Inka hagya mi miikoyo.
Open this door! Don't open that one! Syn: giko.
miikovt. to arrange for something in
miiko-miipevt. to exchange reciprocal help; to assist one another reciprocally.
miiko-miipe vt. to perturb; to disturb.
miikuadj. in a fragile position, as of something that may fall if handled carelessly.
to disturb the state of something by
making it fall or tumble, in such a way that
a tumbling or falling sound is heard.
miikunvt. (of a plural subject) to do
collectively/in group/in company of other persons; to do together.
miikunvt. to do early.
miikurvt. to do back.
miikhavt. to do or act wrongly.
Chobin narun mi
miikhabiine. Chobin erected the fence in the wrong
direction/position. Miikhalyi hoka ganii, ngiika ane. It's my mother who scolds
me when I do something
miikhanvt. to do/make something purposefully for
miikhevt. to act energetically; to make every
effort to do something.
Siinyan ngo exam mi
miikhejapa miikatalyi. This year I shall put forth my
best efforts on the exam.
miikhevt. to make someone cry.
miikhiivt. to kill by beating. See: dankhii;
ekhii; rikhii; men.
to sprain; to wrench or twist a muscle or ligament of a joint of the
body. See: dankhii;
miikhiin-miimiivt. to do something with confusion, in an wrong way.
miikhovt. to do
something which results in a loss/wastage of money, property, value, etc.
miikhovt. to do something other than what was
said or agreed; to act contrary to one's own saying/statement; to act
contrary to an agreement.
miikhovt. to scratch or
peel a dried wound.
Ngiika une mi
miikhosiito. I scratched my wound.
miikhuvt. to demarcate.
miilaadj. clever or good at doing something. Mo narun-nako miilado. He is good at constructing fences and all (i.e. he
knows how to construct fences and all). miila-lulaadj. skilled; expert. Syn:
miilan [mi´lã] 1. n:qual. all. Gramm: qualifying noun usually following another noun and giving the basic sense 'all of N'. In a negative sentence, gives the sense 'none of the'. Miyu miilan. All humans, all people. Mo
ame-aja miilan mi diijabiine. He/she has eaten up till the last morsel (lit. 'all the remnants of food'). Supun miilan gyakerjalopa, ngunu Ziro
kapu hokii kapama. Wherever we may travel on
Earth we won't find any place like Ziro. Supun
miilan ka heniin hii, ali-aho mi ayadopa. Everyone's desire is to get a
healthy crop. (extract from Dree Anthem). 2. pron. all; everybody. Var: mulan. Syn: miilanru; mulanru; jimer. Kago, Ampi la Rinyo miilanru so ane. Kago, Ampi and Rinyo, all of them came. Moka
gambling addiction hii uru mulanru mi byakhapa giine. His/her gambling
addiction has led the whole family to ruin. miilanja 1. n:qual. all without exception. Yagii miilanja simi
lato. Take/collect all these baskets! Moka armyan mi Ziro daka miyu miilanja
tapanyatii. Absolutely all the people in Ziro (had) heard of his/her name. Subu miilanja mi kapado. I see all mithuns (without exception). 2. pron. all; everybody. Miilanja ane. All came. Subu miilanja mi kapama. None of the mithuns are being seen. Var: mulanja.kiidi miilanja ho advphr. everywhere; all over the world.
miilanru [mi´lã´ru] See: miilan.
miilen. remainder of an act or activity which has already been partially performed.
miilivt. to act to avenge oneself.
miilinvt. to make; to create; to generate. Syn: miilin-miiha.
miiliniin. one who takes revenge (unspecified); avenger.
miiliniin [´mi´linĩ] n. (physical) act of vengeance. See: galiniin.
miilin-lulinn. production; creation.
Popi-Sarmin Society ka Tanii bare hoka
miilin-lulinniin atan mi ngo mekun-mepa mekadu. I am trying to collect all
the Apatani related materials produced by the Popi-Sarmin Society.
miiliipart. emphatic particle.
miiliivt. to put something in.
miilovt. to make something fall.
miilovt. to provoke someone with one's acts.
miilu-miilevt. to cause confusion in doing something; to disturb.
miilunvt. to frigthen someone by doing something.
miilyavt. 1. to do something meanwhile/in the meantime, e.g. waiting for someone to come. 2.
to do something on credit from someone.
miilyaadj. normal; usual or expected.
miilyanvt. to copy (what others are doing).
to amend; to rectify; to set something in
miilyaniinn. normal; usual or expected act.
Miilyaniin mi miito. Do what is expected of a normal person! Syn: miilyako.
displace the skin, or a cover from or within the body while doing something.
miilyon. flame. Syn: yamu-miilyo.
miilyovt. to do something or act in an improper way. miilyo-miichovt. to flatter, as in order to gain something.
miilyuvt. to waste (esp. money); to squander; to fritter away; to use up . Syn: miilyu-miicha.
miimalyaniinn. abnormal, unusual or unexpected act.
miimevt. (of an act or a resource) to
off. Siika ude ho tiiko-yanii iche
donii miilan mi miime-miija liito. I finished off whatever money
saved/left with me on this house. Syn: miime-miija.
miimevt. to initiate an action to demonstrate or set an example.
miimivt. to put out a fire.
miiminv. to win a victory over, as in battle or a competition; to vanquish.
miiminvt. to do something without a set purpose. miimin-miihinvt. to do
something as pastime, or to kill time.
miimurvt. to do something wrongly.
miimyavt. to smear. Syn: miimya-miisa.
mi lembo ho niimpa na miimya-miisabiilyi nii? Why have you smeared mud here
and there on the road?
miimyovt. to do something in advance/beforehand/ahead of time. Syn: miimyo-lumyo.
miimyo-miikenvt. to have enough time
to do something. miimyo-miimyun. last action/activity. Syn: miimyu-miiko.
miinaadj. wholly occupied in doing something; fully absorbed in one work or activity.
miinasiila dadu hiila puri-riderkuma. Being completely absorbed in his/her work in the fields he/she could not study properly.
miinevt. to hit, beat or strike someone.
miinevt. 1. to touch something/someone while doing something. 2. to hurt. Syn: miidan.
miiniv. to get one's finger, etc. pinched (e.g. by closing a door). Lachi
miini. To get one's fingers pinched.
miinivt. (Agr.) to prune; to remove parts from a plant to make it more vigorous or to enhance its production; to
weeds or loose soil to make crop grow better.
miininiin [mini:nĩ] n. (plant) pruning.
miinii [´mini] n. doer; one who does or make something (unspecified). miiniibon. doer (specified); the one who does or make something.
miiniin [´minĩ] n. 1. making; building; construction; production; manufacture (as an act to be performed or in process). O miiniin. Preparation of rice/millet beer. 2. state of doing something.
1. vt. to do something fruitlessly or in vain. 2. adj. useless; worthless.
mii'ngovt. to stop doing something.
mii'ngon. part of a work which is not completed; unfinished work.
mii'nguvt. to discriminate someone by an action. Syn: miingu-miire.
henmapa yo ayin-ayin bito, milo mii'ngu-miiredo hiila henkodii ke.
Give meat equal to both to the relatives as well as to the other
the latter may feel being discriminated.
miinyavt. to rub to produce a smooth surface; to polish.
miinyevt. to do till completion.
miinyovt. to do for free.
1. n. (practical) experience; practice. Sulu-narun miinyogiito daniin hii ayado. It's good to have the
experience of constructing fences and all. 2. vt. to learn by practice or experience; to acquire skill through practice; to experience; to practise. Sulu-narun miinyoto. Learn (by practice) to construct fences! miinyo-lunyo
1. n. experience; practice (general sense). 2. vt. to learn by practice or experience; to experience; to practise. (general sense).
miipa [mi´pa]vt. to remove; to get rid of.
miipavt. to spend.
miipe[mi´pe]vt. to do something to completion. Miigo mi miipeto. Complete the work! Mo miipebiine. He/she managed to complete it.
break something, as an egg, etc.
to close. Hagya mi miipinto. Close the door! Var: miipyan.
to use some part of an object or quantity for another purpose. Ude miina-nanii pa ka tiiko iche donii mi hime atan ka abi-tarii ho miipinnantoku ta. I have spent part of the money saved for the construction of the house on
children's clothes. Syn: miimo.
miipevt. to separate. Syn: miipe-lupe.
miipovt. to act from the middle of something, or midway through a process. miipo-miilovt. to act randomly or without care.
miipovt. to cut
oneself accidentally with some sharp material (knife, razor, bamboo splits,
cane wickers, etc.).
Ala miiposiito. I cut my hand. Ngo miiposiito.
I cut myself. See: pipo.
miipuvt. to make/commit a mistake inadvertently; to do something mistakenly. Ngo
miiputo. I made/committed a mistake. Ngo ude mi miipu la miito. I
constructed the house mistakenly.
miipuvt. to cover.
miipurvt. to break, e.g. a plate.
miipyavt. to undo/untie something.
miipya-miisa vt. to scatter.
1. adj. easy to do. 2. pleasant to do. 3. v. to do something easily. 4. to do something with pleasure; to have pleasure in doing something.
miipyo-miipav. to do something easily.
miipyovt. to do something before anyone else does; to do first.
miipyovt. to steal.
miipyuvt. to act in an offending way; to insult or offend someone by one's acts.
miiran. 1. (in olden days) dependent; slave; servant. See: mite. 2. (nowadays) person appointed by a clan to assist the priest, especially in the performance of rituals related to funerals, by digging graves.
miiravt. to empty.
miiran-miitun. important/meaningful act.
miireadj. to act bravely and boldly.
n. ember (glowing or not); charcoal. Var: muri. Syn: yamu-muri.
miirivt. to initiate; to start doing something.
miiri-miinyaadj. tiny; minuscule.
miiri-miiriadv. in a flitting manner or behaviour; flittingly.
miiriivt. 1. to help someone do something. 2. to do together (by two persons facing each other). miirii-miitanvt. to help each other.
miiriibon. 1. helper; assistant. 2. (in a conflict, challenge or competition) adversary; opponent; competitor. Syn: pariibo.
miirovt. to enlarge; to widen; to extend.
Hapoli lembo mi miidiko miirobiine. Hapoli roads have been properly/appropriately widen up.
miiruadj. hard or unpleasant to do. Syn: miiru-miika; miiha-miika. Ant: miipyo.
miiruvt. to make a place messy or untidy.
miiru-miikhavt. to anger, irritate, exasperate or annoy.
miisavt. to do/make something from a distance.
miisanvt. to act partially/in such a way that it favours one persons, faction, etc. Syn: hensan-miisan.
miisivt. to take one's turn to do something.
miisivt. to do something by hiding from other
or by not allowing other to know about it.
miisiin. thing that
has or ought to be done; task; work. Syn: miisiiniin, miisaniin. miisii-lusiin. task; duty.
miisuvt. to do (by) oneself. Ato miisuto!
to separate; to remove; to detach; to disconnect; to loosen; to unfasten.
place where an action is performed. Syn: miita-luta. miita-naniin. place/support/tool on which an action is performed.
miitavt. to flatten something.
miitavt. to do something or act along with something else. Syn: miita-miira.
miitev. to do the last thing. miite-miiyiadv. ultimately.
miitevt. to knock something down.
miiter1. n. effort.
2. v. to resist. Syn: miiter-luter. miiterjan. best effort. Ngo miiterja mi miikato. I
tried to put forth my best efforts.
miitivt. to do again; to redo.
miitivt. to mend; to repair; to
rebuild; to revise.
miitinvt. to obstruct by placing something; to act for preventing or stopping something.Syn: miitin-miiko
miitii-miiriimiivca. to do something without enthusiasm.
to complete something.
miitiiniin. repairing; repair. Sulu
miitinii. Fence repairing.
miituvt. to break. Syn: miitu-miipo.
miituvt. to do something for the first time.
miiyavt. to fight about; to quarrel; to dispute.
miiyann. (Bot.) variety of plant used to make tinder . miiyan chirun. tinder bag usually made of animal skin.
miiyanvt. to do things one after the other.
miiyeadj. (of an action) sufficient.
miiyeja mi miikato. I tried to put sufficient effort (into doing something).
miiyivt. to move down to do something.
miiyinvt. (of a plural subject) to act/do something together. Var: miihin.
miiyovt. to mix; to blend. Syn: miiyo-miichi.
piilyen. feather duster-like priestly ritual object used esp. during *Murun and *Subu Tado, consisting of a bundle of feathers coming off a peacock's, hornbill's and cock's tails attached to a short cane handle .
mo [´mo]pron. he/she/it. Gramm: third person singular pronoun; nominative case. mo anyipron. they two; both of them. Gramm: third person dual pronoun. Mo anyi anii-oho siipe
ha? Are they mother and son? Room n° 10 hii mo anyi kii. The room n° 10 is theirs.mo anyikapron. they two; both of them. Gramm:
third person dual pronoun. Genitive case. mo anyiko adv. 1. (of two persons) at their place. 2. in their custody or possession. Mo anyiko tiiko bare tere nyikumane. They two were without even a penny left. mo anyimipron. they two; both of them. Gramm:
third person dual pronoun. Accusative and dative cases. mo anyipapron. for they two; for/to both of them. Gramm:
third person dual pronoun. Purposive case.
mo[´mo]vt-r. to chase.
Usage: Hari. Var: mon. Usage: Bulla.
mo [mo:]vi-r. to move/turn one's face sideways. Moyo. Don't turn your face!
-movsuff. stop; cease. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the subject ceases to perform the action denoted by the verb, or that the action is stopped. Ant: -ri.
mobyun. (Bot.) variety of plant formerly used as a dye.
mochuvt. to kiss.
modu-mobovi. to show off in a superior manner.
cheekbone. Syn: morun alo.
mohiadj. unclean, as of water.
mohivt. to bend or hide one's face, usually due to shyness.
turn or move one's face. Syn: mohii-mokhe.
moin. variety of colour pattern for male and female mithuns. Denotes animal having a white body colour and a black head with a large white strip running from the forehead to the muzzle.
mokaadj. sunken, as of cheeks. Etym: from *nyimo, 'face', *-ka, 'dented'.
moka [´moka] pron. his; her; its. Gramm: third person singular pronoun; genitive case.
his; her. Gramm: third person singular pronoun, possessive case. Siika tarii si mokii masii ha? Isn't this shirt his/her?
1. at his/her place. 2. in his/her custody or possession. Gramm: third person singular pronoun. Locative and possessive cases.
mokhaniin. thirst. Var: mokhaniin.
they. Gramm: third person plural pronoun; nominative case.
moluka [´moluka]dem. their. Gramm: third person plural pronoun; genitive case. Noho moluka duko do? Where is their sitting place? Ngo, moluka agin ho dubotalyi. I will stay/sit with them.
theirs. Gramm: third person plural pronoun; possessive case.
1. at their place. 2. in their custody or possession.
them. Gramm: third person plural pronoun; accusative case. No molumi niida inkiinenchiku? When will you let them go?
for them. Gramm: third person plural pronoun; purposive case. Molupa duko mebitii ha? Have you arranged accomodation for them?
molusu [´molusu] pron. themselves. Gramm: third person plural reflexive pronoun. Var: molusii.
mome [mome] n. trunk, as of an elephant.
momi [´mo´mi] pron. him; her. Gramm: third person singular pronoun; accusative case. Tabin ka nyimo
daka scar si momi kahogiido. The scar left a mark onTabin's face.
mon [´mõ]vt-r. to chase someone or something. Usage: Bulla. Var: mo. Usage: Hari.
-monvsuff. [do] with others; follow. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subject follows someone in performing the action denoted by the verb. Often occurs in third position, after a first verb suffix but before the tense markers. Tapu, Kano
ka luniin mi lubamonbiine. Tapu reiterated what Kanno had said. Molumi miibomonto. Do it with them!
monbivt. to chase someone
on someone else's behalf/ for someone.
monpavt. to chase away, as a person or an animal.
-mon pevsuff. help me to [do]. Gramm: hortative suffix combination indicating that the speaker urges the addressee to carry out the action indicated by the verb for him, or urges the addressee to follow him in carrying out the action indicated by the verb. Miibomon pe.
Help me to do it. (or 'Do it with me'). Ngiika dukhu-palyo mi joliimon pe kan. You got to help me carry my luggage and all.
mopa [´mo´pa] pron. for him/her; to him/her. Gramm: third person singular pronoun; purposive case. Mopa ngo pencil
sohe riibiidu. I have bought a pencil for him/her.
more [more]n. forest; jungle. Encycl: primarily describes those areas forest land located beyond the bamboo groves (*bije) and the tree groves (*sansun) that are jointly held by all
the members of a clan. By extension, may also be used to describe a forest in the general sense. more dunyann. (Bot.) Chinese 'dunya' (Eryngium foetidum), a forest plant used as a vegetable. From: Assamese 'Maan Dhoniya'. Var:more dunya. more-giira [more gira]n.forests. Usage: poetic/literary
form of *more. Siidin
atan hii more giira ho hiisan diila sandu. Deers subsist by eating grass in
forests. more miiyan. (Zool.) Black
kite (Milvus migrans) . more pain. (Zool.) generic term used for several varieties of laughing thrushes (Garrulax sp. and Turdus sp.). Encycl: Those birds consume a large number of fruits of the Champa tree (Michelia champaca) during its season . more pajen. (Zool.) a forest duck, possibly White-Winged Wood Duck (Cairina scutulata). more
parsinn. (Zool.) Indian Jungle Fowl/Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) . more-sansun. forests, in general. Subu hii more-sansu ho dadu. Mithuns live in forests. halu moren. forest land jointly held by all the members of a clan. pimbu morenphr. privately owned forest. uru moren. forest tract
of land jointly held by all the members of a patrilineage.
(Anat.) cheek. Opi ka morun si bulyun-bulyundo. Opi's cheeks are very
soft. Var: moru. morun alo [mo:´rũ a´lo:] n.
(Anat.) cheekbone. Syn: mogo alo.
morun See: murta.
mosu [´mosu] pron. himself/herself. Gramm: third person singular reflexive pronoun; nominative case. See: atosu.
moyuadj. unhappy, as of a face or look; gloomy.
muv-r. to blow
muvt-r. to brew rice or millet beer.
muvi-r. (of animals) to rut; to be in rut; (of female animals) to be in heat. Aki mudo. The dog is rutting.
mubivt. to brew beer on someone's else behalf/for someone.
mubu [´mu´bu] 1. n. ash, especially from burnt firewood and bamboo. Encycl: ashes from household burnt are used as organic
fertiliser in paddy fields. Var: miibu. Syn: muyu. 2.
adj. grey, ashy (color). mubu-muluadj. (of
colour) grey; ashy. mubu rujuadj. (of colour) dull. Syn:
mugon. (Agr.) opening in the dyke of a paddy field to evacuate the surplus of water; channel in a paddy field used for drainage of
water; canal. Encycl: fish fingerlings are put in
*mugo after the transplanting of paddy. Var: miigo.
muku [´muku] n. 1.
tobacco. Syn: duhi. 2. (Bot.) tobacco plant . 3. smoke. muku-kulin. tobacco plant seed. muku-muin. carbon particles from
smoke deposited on dust, spider web etc. in Apatani homes. Traditionally used as an ointment for skin disease. muku sudun. traditional smoking
pipe. Encycl: the bowl is made from a cane called
*tare while the stem is made from the reed bamboo (*pepu). The hollow of
the bowl is created by burning, to remove the soft pulpy inner part of the
cane. A similar pipe is made by the Apatanis where the bowl is made from
bamboo . See:sudu. muku tanvcn. to smoke. dachan muku sudun.metallic smoking pipe.
mulan. (Bot.) radish. From: Assamese 'mula'.
scare. Piidi mulu. To scare (small) birds.
lover; girl or lady who can be a prospective girlfriend or lover. See: nyimun. Usage: *mundo (for females) and *shado (for males) are used in poetic expression only. In conversational language, *nyimun stands for girl friend or lover, *miha for
boy friend or male lover.
muniinn. (of animals) rutting season.
muniinn. brewing process.
mupavt. to blow out.
-murvsuff. incorrectly; mistakenly. Gramm: manner/result suffix indicating that the subject performs the action denoted by the verb in a wrong or erroneous way, or that the action brought about by the subject results in some failure or accident. Ant: -da.Tamur. To mishear/misunderstand something that one hears. Siilo jaji gonii si gomurte ke, ngiika lap-top mi alyusiite. Today's flight was bad as I lost my laptop.
murchin. (Zool.) variety of
murpa sain. dense fog, esp. the typical hazy look in the horizon which is commonly seen in Ziro area around March-April.
murton. finely cut leaf fletches put on arrow tails. Var: morto. murunn. 1. first
lunar month of the year, corresponding to the coldest period of the
year. Nowadays commonly used to refer to the month of January. Syn:
murun piilo. 2. major individual festival celebrated in the
month of *murun. Encycl: persons having conducted a *murung are entitled to wear a particular ceremonial shawl. murun-runsern. smallest type of *murun requiring the sacrifice of only
one or two mithuns, or a mithun and a cow. Encycl: *murun-runser is performed at the village level, and the meat shared between contributors only. Syn:runser; runsere; ronsa. murun-runtiin. one of the highest and most expensive type of *murun ranking above *takun
putu, involving the sacrifice of several mithuns and several cows. Marked by a procession
(*penii) throughout the entire Ziro valley and a distribution of meat to every household. Syn: runtii. See:takun putu.
murta tapann. (Bot.)Lesser Duckweed (Lemna minor) a floating plant found in streams and paddy fields .
murun. torch; bundle of burning split bamboos or firewood.
mushan. romance. Etym: possibly a compound word from *shado and *mundo. Syn: nyimun miha sosuniin.
mutun. harf-burnt firewood. Syn: yamu
especially remains of burnt straws. Encycl: remains
of burnt straws are used as organic fertiliser in paddy fields. Syn:
myavt-r. to lull; to console (esp. a child). Siika hime simi amanehe mi bikasiitii, ngo myalakuma. I have given everythig to this child, [but] I couldn't console him. Khelyi
hoka myanii, ngiika ane. It's my mother who consoles me when I am crying.
myavt-r. to beg. Syn: kha.
-myavsuff. stained. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something becomes stained or smudged as a result of the action identified by the verb. Syn: -mya...-sa. Jebi
mi lembo ho niimpa na miimya-miisabiilyi nii? Why have you smeared mud here
and there on the road?
(Anat.) semen; sperm.
myamun. (Anat.) male pubic hair.
antique brass plate invested with great social value, some
of them being said to have helped Apatani ancestors to eliminate the legendary aquatic reptiles, *buru, at the time of their first settlement in the Valley. myamya piiron. plated basket of bamboo splits for storing *myamya. myanvt-r. to name.
myanguvt. to change someone's name.
myaniinn. consoling, calming, esp. of a baby.
-myovsuff. 1. in advance. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the action of the verb is carried out in advance of a task or of a deadline.
2. enough time (for).
myobu n. forest which is deeper than *myora.
myobyan. (of a house, wall, mountain slope, etc.) east facing side. Ant: myolyi.
myobyun. earth. myobyu-huniinn. earthquake.
myodi [´mjodi] n. outdoor; alien land; places located far off the village, esp. forest lands outside the Apatani valley. Myodi liipa ho. (Deep) in the jungle; in the midst of the forest. Mo myodi bone. He went away. myodi yasi [´mjodi´yasi] n. far off places or lands.
Ziro hoka putu-puko,
myodi-yasi si ano kapyodo In Ziro, the mountains and surrounding areas are very beautiful.
myodu [´mjodu] n. time; period; season. Piilo karlindupa myodu doku. It's time for the moon to appear.Myodu ronnye. Two periods of time. Syn: myodu-myolo [´mjodu´mjolo]. Siisi
myodu-myolo do ke. It's time now.
myogo n. forest in the vicinity of the village.
myoguvi. (of animals, esp. birds) to migrate.
myokon. 1. third lunar month of the year. Nowadays commonly used to refer to the month of March. Syn. myoko piilo. 2. the biggest festival of the Apatanis celebrated during the month of
*myoko. myoko yugyann. common altar where clan members from different places
join together and numerous pigs are sacrificed. myokon. open space beyond the village area.
performed before the transplanting of paddy, which is intended to benefit its
myokha [´mjo:xa] n. flooring, made of half-sections of bamboo trunks.
myolen. ritual element of sacrificial altars .
myolyin. (of a house, wall, mountain slope, etc.) west facing side. Ant: myobya.
myopii [´mjo:´pi] n. bamboo mat used as flooring or partition inside the house. Myopii mi uropa chadin'yo. Don't tread heavily on the
floor! Syn: tarsi.
myora n. forest which is far in or deep.
-myuvsuff. last. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subject is last among a group in carrying out the action identified by the verb. Ant: -tu.