jan:qual.some. Gramm: qualifying noun following another noun with the overall meaning 'some', 'some of'. When occurring in negative clauses or sentences, gives the sense 'no x'. Subu ja kapama.No mithun is visible. Ude ja kone heter nyima doye. There was no house. ja abujen:qual.many. Ude ja abuje
do. There are
many houses. ja...jan:qual. many. Gramm: post-nominal qualifying noun. Gives the basic meaning 'many', 'lots of'. Yo ja yo ja. Lots of meat. Yasi ja yasi ja. Lots of water/flooded.
ja [dʑa:] vi-r.1. to move unsteadily; to walk in a shaky, tottering or swaying way; to stagger while walking 2. to glide.
-javsuff. complete. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the action indicated by the verb is completed, or carried out completely. Mo lujane. He/she finished speaking. Mo apin (mi) diijabiine. He/she has eaten up his/her meal. Ngiika discovery miiniin simi tagyan-miido chinjabiidoku. My discovery is known to the entire world.
-ja [´dʑa]vsuff. tear off. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the action denoted by the verb results in an entity/object being torn off. Etym: from *paja, 'having edges that are jagged from injury', as in *tarii paja, 'torn shirt'), *nyachu paja ('cleft lips'), etc. Siija. Tear off something by scratching. Paja. Tear off by cutting with a machete or sword. Tapu ngiika tarii mi sarjabiine. Taru has torn off my shirt (by hand). Syn: -ja...-ya.
-ja [´dʑa]adjsuff. most; the most. Gramm: superlative suffix added to adjective roots, with the basic sense 'most' or 'the most'. Occurs prior to the tense markers. Kapyoja. Most beautiful. Kago ayajado. Kago is the best. Apa miilanru mi kayejado. Apa is the tallest of all.
jabyon. outskirts. jabyo ajin. rice field situated on the outskirts of the village, whose value is usually less that those located nearer to the dwellings. Ant: lengo aji. jabyo hopost. 1. on the outskirts.Jabyo
ho aji do. It's a paddy field located on the outskirts of the village. 2. (in a figurative sense) besides the point; out of the topic. Jabyo hosu ke lusu da nii. He
is speaking meaninglessly.
jagii v. to sway or cause to sway.
jaji piilann.(Zool.) generic term for small passerine birds with stunning colours. Especially refers to minivets (Grey chinned minivet, Scarlet minivet), flowerpeckers (Yellow-bellied flowerpecker), among
jaku-jalyavi.to move unsteadily; to stagger.
jalo [dʑalo] conj.or. Gramm: disjunctive coordinating conjunction marking alternation between two identically constructed grammatical elements (words, phrases or clauses). Pen jalo pencil ako-ako mi labiihe. Take either a pen or a pencil.No bus jalo tempo latulakindo. You can catch a bus or a tempo. jalo...jalo [dʑalo dʑalo] conj. either...or.
-jalo [dʑalo]1. vsuff. even if; even though.Gramm: concessive subordinating suffix indicating that an event will happen despite or although the marked information. Aba gadabiilyijalo, ngo cinema katetalyi. Even if my Dad scolds me I will go to see a movie. Hiimkane loda abu bimajalo ayanedii ke. Even if you don't give that much to them it will be ok (i.e. it is not necessary to give that much to them). Syn: -jalopa. Supun miilan gyakerjalopa, ngunu Ziro kapu hokii kapama. Wherever we may travel on
Earth we won't find any place like Ziro. 2. part. even. Gramm: noun-marking sense of the subordinating suffix *-jalo. Siisi jalo.Even by now.
janiin [dʑa:nĩ] n. 1. wavering. 2. gliding.
jantu1. vi.to be or become fat. 2. adj. (of a person) fat; plump. Mo jantudo. He/she is fat. jantujaadj.fattest. jantuyaadj.fatter.
jarnum. thousand.Gramm: root form prefixing numerals. Tiiko jarnye. Two thousand rupees. From: Assamese 'hajar'.Syn: lalyan.
jarvt-r.to propel some flat or disc-shaped objectthrough the air so that it spins in flight. Syn: jarpa.
jarbovt.to throw some flat or disc-shaped object across something.
jaren:num.one thousand. Gramm: used for referring to a particular object. When enumerating, as in school, *jarkun is used instead.
jarivi.to fall or come as a shower.
jarkinn. variety of container.
jarkun [dʑar´kũ]n:num. one thousand. Gramm: when enumerating only, without reference to a particular object, as in school. When referring to a particular object, *jare is used in place of *jarkun.
jarpavt.to propel some flat or disc-shaped object through the air so that it spins in flight.
jarpivt. to dry something by setting out in the sun and wind. See: hepi.
jarpinn. (Med.) hysteria.
jarpinvt. (by a spirit) to harm physically. Momi jarpinkoto la akhii achilado. He/she was harmed by a spirit and [now] he/she is having pain in the abdomen. See: arun.
jevi-r.(of solid, relatively hard food) to soften/become tender by cooking.Apin jedoku keThe rice has softened (by cooking).
-je vsuff. truely; actually; for real. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subject performs the action indicated by the verb in a true, truthful, real or actual manner. Luje. To tell the truth or speak truthfully. Miije. To do actually. Gije. To lie down for real.
-je vsuff. over; on. Gramm: directional suffix usually occuring on intransitive activity verbs, indicating that the action denoted by the verb takes place over, or on a particular object. Harje. Run over something. Ate, no ngiika ali mi chajebiido. Brother, you are
stepping on my foot!
-je...-pe vsuff. intentionally. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subject brings about the action denoted by the verb deliberately or intentionally.
jebi 1. n. mud; sludge. Jebi
mi lembo ho niimpa na miimya-miisabiilyi nii? Why have you smeared mud here
and there on the road?
2. adj.muddy; wet. 3. adj.in muddy condition; pasty; gluey; viscid.Apin jebido. The rice is pasty/gluey (i.e. overcooked, which the Apatani people usually dislike).
jejeadj. wet, as of cooked rice containing too much water. Apin jeje. Wet (cooked) rice.
-jer vsuff. thrifty; sparing; economical. Gramm: adjectivalizing suffix indicating that the subject is practising or showing thrift in performing the action identified by the verb. Lujer. Cautious (in speaking). Syn: -jer...-ber. Miijer-miiber. Thrifty/careful in spending or using.
jerevt. to cut/break into two pieces. Syn: jitu.
jeta 1. vt. to flatten. Usage: colloquial. 2. adj. flattened.
ji [´dʑi:] adj.black. ji kiina adj. deep black. Syn: ji
kiini.Si ji kiinipa
hiila - no nii na diido nii? What is this black thing you are you eating?
jivt-r. to roll.
ji 1. vt-r. to melt a substance by heating it. 2. vi-r. to melt, as of a substance. Syn: jilo.
-ji [dʑi] vsuff. 1. with pleasure or gusto. 2. pleasant for; convenient for. Gramm:
manner suffix indicating that the subject carries out the action denoted
by the verb with pleasure or gusto. Also derives an adjective with the basic meaning 'pleasant for', 'convenient for'. Syn: -ji...-pa.
jibi vt. 1.to roll something on someone else's behalf or for someone. 2. to give something to someone by rolling it. Paji mi jibito! Give the bike!
jibi vt. to melt something on someone else's behalf/for someone.
jibi vt. to roll toward the right. Ant: jichi.
jibovt.to roll across.
jichi vt. to roll leftward. Ant: jibi.
jide-jide vt. to roll on and on.
jidinvt. to wield.
jigjiron. variety of simple dark-blue fringe shawl with yellow stripes, especially worn by priests during *Myoko and *Murun.
jihiadj. quiet; silent; peaceful; undisturbed. jihi raraadj. silent, as of an environment or surroundings.
jihin n. piece of cloth.
jihii-jikhe vt. to move by rolling; to roll to and from.
jije[´dʑi´dʑe] 1. n. truth; reality. 2. adj. true; real; actual. 3. adv. truely; truthfully. jije miivcn. to do/acttruly or truthfully. jijepaadv. really.Jijepa ha?Really? Jijepa cho an! Very true! jijeyaadj.truer (than). jijeniinn.truth.
jijiadj. (of colour) grue (i.e. alternatively blue or green, depending on the context). Yapun hii jijido. The sky is blue. Anii hii jijido. The leaf is green. Syn: niiji. jiji kiinaadj. deep blue/deep green. Syn:jiji-jikho.
jijin tayinn. (Zool.) variety of dragonfly.
jikervt. to surround/revolve around/circle by rolling something. See: paker.
jikhe tarii n.variety of sleeveless white jacket richly designed with dark blue losenge designs, mostly used by ritual performers.
jila adj. skilled/expert in *miji chanting. Syn: miji-jila.
jilan pulye n. variety of outer, fringed shawl with intricated lozenge motifs and dots, formerly made of an admixture of wool and cotton.Encycl:the most expensive piece of the ceremonial priestly attire. This cloth is required in most important rituals performed at the time of
*Myoko, *Murun and *Subu tanii. *Bulyan members are also entitled to wear
it. According to oral tradition, the colours were copied from the colour combinations of the Grey Peacock Pheasant (Polyplectron bicalcaratum), which the Apatanis call *tar piita or *tarlar. Syn: jilyan .
jilo 1. vt. to melt down. Hulyi mi jiloto. Melt down the pig fat! 2.vi. to melt down.
jilya n. coarse silk. Var: jilyan; jilyo. jilya pulyen. variety of coat of olden days, made out of coarse silk of different shades. Encycl: can be folded into two and wrapped around the body, or with two ends
diagonally tied across one shoulder. The middle portion of the cloth
can be held tight to the body by means of a belt.
jilyo vi. to take the wrong path/way while rolling.
jilyin n. bramble; berry (generic). Usage: Diibo, Bulla. Var: jilyunUsage: Hija. aki jilyinn. (Bot.) Mock Strawberry/Indian Strawberry (Potentilla indica), a small berry species having trifoliate leaves and relatively sour fruits which are not usually eaten by the Apatanis. The leaves may be consumed as a vegetable.Etym: from *aki, 'dog, *jilyin, 'bramble/berry'.Var: aki jilyun . jinkhe-jilyinn. (Bot.) Wild Karanda (Carissa spinarum), a thorny shrub commonly growing in
forests up to 1,500 m, bearing edible small fruits of hyacint blue
colour. Etym: from *-khe, 'purple/purplish', *jilyin,
'bramble/berry'.Var: jinkhe-jilyun. jimpu jilyin n. (Bot.) variety of yellow raspberry resembling the Yellow Himalayan Raspberry (Rubus ellipticus), but bearing berries which grow in clusters. Etym:
from *pulu, 'white', *jilyin,
'bramble/berry'.Var: jimpu-jilyun. jintii jilyin n. (Bot.) variety of juicy, red berry. tiire jilyinn. (Bot.) Himalaya Blackberry (Rubus procerus), a thorny bramble bearing purplish-black berries. Etym:
from *tiire, 'thorn/thorny', *jilyin,
'bramble/berry'.Var: tiire jilyun. Usage: Hari; tare jilyun.
jimi jama adj.dim; shadowy; hazy. Aro konchi dado jimi-jamadorampa ngo aji inchi. I shall go to paddy fields at early morning (i.e. when the morning haze is still low on the horizons). aro jimi jamanphr. morning twilight. alyin jimi jamanphr. evening twilight.
jimuadj. having a whirling sensation; vertiginous; dizzy.Syn: jinku sumu; sumu.
jinvt-r.to tie with canes or ropes, as in tiying fences.
-jin vsuff. elongated; stretched out. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something is elongated or stretched out as a result of the action identified by the verb.
jincha vt. to pull oneself up; to straighten up.
jiniin n. rolling.
jiniin n. act or state of melting.
jinko-jinko adj. (of a person) very tall; abnormally tall. Usage: sarcastic.
jinkhe jilin See: jilin.
jinti vt. to tighten a rope.
jipinvt. to close something by rolling a rounded object over it, as when covering a hole with a stone. Ubu mi jipinto. Close the hole!
jipo vt.to seal, as an envelope; to fully close.
jipivt. to roll over something and flatten it; to run over, as of a vehicle. Pachu mi gari jipibiine. The car ran over a chicken.
jipovt. to bind/join two parts or substances by melting them, e.g. as when applying plastic on a joint.
jipuadj. round. Sari lune kiidi hii jipudo. The teacher said that the Earth is round.
jir vt-r. to roll, esp. disc-like objects.
jirhii-jirkhevt. to roll something from one place to another.Syn: bahii-bakhe.
jirii1. vt.to circle; to roll over; to rotate.2. vi.to rotate; to revolve. See: harii;
jiryivt. to roll down, esp. disc-like objects.
jitu See: jere.
jo [dʑo] vt-r. to lift or carry on one's shoulder or in one's hand; to heft. Syn: joka.
jo [dʑo:] vt-r.to cut something lengthwise with a blade, e.g. a cloth.
jovt-r.to pay, as wage, salary, etc.; to remunerate someone in cash or kind.
jovt-r. to lay or stack up something; to pile up; to heap.
-jovsuff. reward; result. Gramm: nominalizer; derives a noun with the basic meaning of 'reward of x', 'result of x' or 'price for x', x corresponding to the action identified by the verb.
-jo vsuff. while moving. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subjects keeps performing the action denoted by the verb as he moves. Diijo. To keep eating as one moves.
-jo...-jo vsuff. continuously. Gramm: split temporal suffix indicating that the action/event identified by the verb occurs as a continuous process, without interruption.
-jo...-myo vsuff. frugally. Gramm: split manner suffix indicating that the subject brings about the action denoted by the verb in a simple or frugal way, from necessity or to avoid wastage. Giijo-giimyo. To wear simple clothing; to dress in a frugal manner.
joba vt. (of a plural subject) to lift/carry together.
joba vt. (of a plural subject) to cut something lengthwise together.
joba vt. (of a plural subject) to pay or remunerate together.
joba vt. (of a plural subject) to heap or pile up something together.
jobivt. 1. to lift/carry on someone else's behalf or for someone; 2. to give something to someone by lifting or hefting it.
jobi vt. to cut something lengthwise on someone else's behalf/for someone;
jobi vt. to pay or remunerate on someone else's behalf/for someone.
jobi vt. to heap or pile up something on someone else's behalf/for someone.
jobin vt. (of a plural subject) to lift/carry jointly.
jobo vt.1. to lift/carry along with someone. 2. to help someone lift or carry something.
jobovt. to lift/carry across.
jobun vt.to plunge and soak. Var: jobyun.
jobyun See: jobun.
jocha vt.1. to lift or raise onto a higher level. 2. to move up to lift something.
jochun vt. to hide (by lifting or hefting).Tero mi hime kapakiinedii la hiila jochunbiine. She has hidden the chilly to avoid the children from seeing it.
jode vt.to pile/stack up closely, as logs, etc.
joduvt. to damage.
jogin n. handle for carrying; any protruding part or rough surface that provides a firm grip for carrying something. Syn: jogin-nanii.
jogovt.to miss something or someone while lifting/hefting/carrying something.Syn: jogo-jolo.
jogu vt. to change the place/replace something by lifting it. Piichan mi jogutote. Replace the pot!
jogya vt. to place something in a wrong place (by lifting it).
johevt. to scratch/make a mark on something with a knife or a nail.
johii vt. to move something to another position by lifting it. johii-jokhe vt. to move something out of its place by lifting it.
joja vt. to finish carrying; to complete carrying. Mo yasan jojatiiku. He/she has finished carrying the firewood.
jojern.(Zool.) chafer (Cetonia aurata), a beetle having a metallic green coloration .
jojokhe vt. to carry/transport with one's hands. Emo jojokhe. Carry rice by hand. Syn: bahii-bakhe.
jojo ropon.(Zool.) Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria), a small bird with stunning crimson, grey and black plumage, related to the nuthatch family .
jojun. (Zool.) variety of fly.
jojurun. (Bot.) Catchfly(Silene sp. possibly S.
heterophylla), a variety of wild creeper bearing edible, red, sweet pepper-like fruits. Var: jojiiru. Usage: Hari. jojuru ahin. fruit of the *jojuru plant.
joka vt. 1. to lift, carry or heft something as a trial/to see what happens. Ngiimi joka pe! Please carry for me! 2. to try to lift, carry or heft something. Ngiimi joka pe! Try to lift me!
jokavt-r.to cut something lengthwise with a blade (as a trial or to see what happens).
joko n. place for lifting/hefting something.
joko n. place for piling up something.
joku-jolyavt. to lift/heft/carry in an improper way.
jokunvt. (of a plural subject) to carry something/someone collectively on shoulder or in hand.
jokunvt. (of a plural subject) to heap or pile up something collectively.
jokhe vt. to carry roughly or angrily.
jokhe vt. to move something upside down by lifting it.
jola n. carry bag.
jolin vt. to carry something outside.
jolo vt. to unload something that is being carried. Yasan joloto! Unload the firewood! (that you are carrying)
jolyan vt. to lay or stack something up neat and tidy.
jomii [dʑo´mi] n.cloud.Var: jomu.
-jomon [dʑo´mõ]vsuff. succeed; follow. Gramm: temporal suffix combination indicating that the subjects succeeds someone, or follows someone through the action denoted by the verb.
jombiin. wooden beam. lapan jombiin. wooden beam of a *lapan.
element of sacrificial altars, tassel-like bamboo peels extracted by teasing out the inner side (used for ritual or decorative purpose). One *jompu decorates the top
of the *babo pole, hanging from the broader end of the *cholo element.
Var: some. Usage: Hari .
jonu-jona vt. to lift/carry something in vain.
jopavt.to take off or remove a load.
jopaniin n. overthrowing; overthrow.
to carry something
and place it in a way that something else is completely beneath it or crushed
under its weight.
jopinvt. to close with something. Syn: jotin.
jopu vt. to put something over something else.
jopu vt. to lift/carry something mistakenly.
jopyanvt. to close a gap by putting something.
jopyo adj. easy, pleasant or convenient to lift/carry. Ant: joru.
jorivt.to lift something.
joruadj. difficult, unpleasant or unconvenient to lift/carry.
josu vt.to detach something by lifting it.
jotin See: jopin.
jotu vt. 1. to pick up. 2. to lift; to move something/someone to a higher place or level.
jotu-jopovt. to hack; to cut someone or something into pieces with a blade or a knife.
ju- [´ju] class. classifier for ladles (*yaju) or ladlefuls. juye/jue, junye, juhinnge, jupe, ju'ngohe, jukhe, jukanuhe, jupinye, jukoahe, julyanhe. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 ladle(s)/ladleful(s). Etym: from *yaju, 'ladle made of dried gourd'.
juvt-r.(Agr.) to winnow, as rice paddy.
-juvsuff. way of doing something. Gramm: nominalizer forming a noun describing a manner of doing something. -ju... -myo vsuff. way of doing something. Gramm: split nominalizer deriving a noun with the basic meaning of 'way of doing x', x being the action indicated by the verb root which is reduplicated. Henju-hemmyo. Way of thinking; character.
juja 1. adj. wet. 2. vi. to be or become wet. Ant: pitan.
jujuvt.(Agr.) to winnow. juju-junii n. winnowing.
jukavt. to measure, in general (for heights, weights, etc.).
jukun n:num. one ladle or ladleful, as quantity contained in one *yaju. Gramm: by enumerating only, without reference to a particular object, as in school. When referring to a particular object, *jue/juye is used in place of *jukun.
jukhu n. (Agr.) residue from a winnowing process, esp. bigger particles remaining in the winnowing basket.
junepron. (of ladles or ladlefuls) how many. Gramm: interogative pronoun used for a countable of items in a collection.
junya adj. wet. Pulye
junya. Wet cloth.
junyo adj. (of a ladle or ladleful) small. Ant: juro.
juro adj. (of a ladle or ladleful) big. Ant: junyo.
jusa n:qual. (of
two or more ladles or ladlefuls) 1. distinct; different. 2. one set for each. Gramm: post-nominal
qualifying noun. Etym:
from*yaju, 'ladle made of dried gourd'.
juyen:num.one ladle or ladleful, construed as the quantity contained in one *yaju.Gramm: used for referring to a particular object. When enumerating, as in school, *jukun is used in place of *jue/juye. Var: jue. See: ju-.