ha- class. finger width, construed as a basic unit of linear measure. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for measuring heights of small size. haye/hae,
hanye, hahinnge, hape, ha'ngohe, hakhe, hakanuhe, hapinye, hakoahe, halyanhe.
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 10 finger width(s). Byapu hanyepahe chadoku. The bamboo shoot has grown to about two fingers widths high. See: tin-.
ha-class. step. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for steps of a ladder, staircase, etc. haye/hae,
hanye, hahinnge, hape, ha'ngohe, hakhe, hakanuhe, hapinye, hakoahe, halyanhe.
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 10 step(s) of ladder, staircase, etc.
hapart. yes/no question marker. Gramm: polar question marker occuring at the end of a sentence or clause in direct or indirect speech. No
ayasiido ha? How are you? No Diyobar alo sii masii
ha enna inkinnen nii? Siilo diyobar ha enna? You were leaving on Sunday. Is today Sunday? No seminar
pa ha adu nii? Do you come to attend the seminar?
ha vt-r. to dry something, esp. on the bamboo shelving complex (*dareke) located above the main fireplace. See aha.
havt-r. 1. to collect or fetch, esp. a liquid. Ngo sukun hokii yasi hadu. I fetched water from the well. 2. to fill, esp. a liquid. 3. to collect something using a basket or a net. Ngiiyi hato. Catch some fish!
havt-r. to cut with one's teeth, as of humans or animals. Ngiimi aki hakhabiine. I was slightly bitten by a dog (i.e. the dog failed to bite me and I got scratches/bruises only).
-ha vsuff. come inside. Gramm: directional suffix indicating that the subject moves into a space to perform the action denoted by the verb. Apin diisa kan. So duhato. Let's have meal! Come sit here! Syn: -a
-ha vsuff. overly. Gramm: manner
suffix indicating that the subject performs the
action denoted by the verb in an excessive way, or that the object is excessively affected by the action indicated by the verb.
-ha...-khavsuff. 1. uneasily; with difficulty; 2. difficult to [do]; unpleasant to [do]. Gramm:
split manner suffix indicating that the subject carries out the action
denoted by the verb in an uneasy or unpleasant manner. Also derives an
adjective with the basic meaning 'difficult to x', unpleasant to x', x
representing the action indicated by the verb. Nunu lembo si jebi adin doto la ano aha-akhado. The road to your place was muddy and it was not easy to come.
habunadj. cool (opp. hot, as a sensation or type of weather). Ude ago ho habundo. It is cool outside the house. Ant: gubu. habunjaadj. coolest. habunpaadv. coolly. Ant: gubupa. habunyaadj. cooler.
habyapart. so. Gramm: intensifying particle following adjectives, with the basic sense 'so' or 'so much'.
Kapyo habya. It's so beautiful! No akan habya! You are so late!
n. (Anat.) chest. habyan alon.
(Anat.) sternum. habyan pilan 1. n. yellow chest. 2. adj. yellow-chested, as of an animal.
habyan-harann. tree branches.
(esp. of feeling) sad; heart
breaking. Etym: from *aha 'heart, *-che 'broken'.
hache vi. to break out, as of a trouble or crisis; to happen.Tarun ka ude si uyi miilado nii, ngoya ako hachedudo. A ritual is being performed at Tarun's house, I guess there is some trouble there. Usage: Bulla. Syn: hache siire.
part/half of what as been fetched. Usually describes a liquid
hadii vi. to be or get angry. Hadiilyi hoka yanii, ngiika ane. It's my mother who calmes me
down when I get angry. Ngiika aha si hadiihaja la bute-buyepa miidoku. I got
so much angry that my heart was about to burst out [of my chest]. hadii-diiga 1. vi. to
get angry on the slightest cause; to overeact. 2. adj. (of a person) overreacting.
kapaadj. irritating. hadii mikhan. enmity.
hagevt. 1. to hook; to hang from a hook. Syn: aha. 2. to tick. Ayanii mi hageto. Tick the right answer. See leko.
hago n. notch cut in a piece of wood, esp. that constituting the steps of a ladder.
hago n. topic; subject. Syn: piigo.
hago See: sango-hago.
hago adj. 1. too much proudy. 2. beyond the level of socially expected behaviour. Usage: especially used for warning
hagyan. 1. entrance. 2. gate, esp. of a fenced field or grove. Inka hagya mi miikohe! [Go
and] open that door! See: agya.
haja/-haja 1. suff. too; too much. Gramm:
manner suffix added to verbs and adjectives, indicating that the action
identified by the verb is overdone, or that the property indicated by
the adjective is too much or overdone. May also occur as a particle
following nouns. Mo jantuhajado. He/she is too fat. Siika buko simi, ngatiihajaku la diitiilakuma ka aha oh. This large wild rat is too tasty (oily) to be finished. Si
pa koda khiigahajabiido. For it, the cost is too high. Tam,
baritotiika. Nyibyahajado ke, ngiimi imikiinempe. Tam, wake up! It's
too early, let me sleep! Ngiika aha si hadiihaja la bute-buyepa miidoku. I got
so much angry that my heart was about to burst out [of my chest]. Var: haje. Usage: Hari. Inka nyimii si luruhajedo. That
girl is too stubborn. 2. part. too; too much. Gramm:
post-nominal particle describing either an excess of the
quantity indicated by the noun, or that the property indicated by
the noun is too much or overdone. O abu haja tayo.
Don't take too much beer. Yamu arun haja ho duto la ali mi yabya-yalyabiine. I was sitting too near to the fire, so I got my leg burnt.
hajuadj. lightweight; light. Ant: ayi.
hakan. rung; step of a ladder or stair.
hakunn:num. one finger width. Gramm: used
when enumerating only, i.e. without reference to a particular object,
as in school. Otherwise, *hahe/*haye is used in place of *hakun.
hakunn:num. one (step of ladder, staircase, etc.. Gramm: by enumerating only,
i.e. counting without reference to any particular object). Syn:hahe; haye. hakun-hanyin. step; stage; grade.
hakhiivt. to take away. Aki hii yo hakhiibiine. The dog took the meat away.
hakhuvt. to separate.
of blue melon bead. See: page.
halikan. (Zool.) Common Myna (Acridotheres
tristis). From: Assamese .
haliivt. to blame; to accuse someone.
halon. branch. Syn:
halovt. to dominate; to rule or control.
halo piilon. eight lunar month of the year. Nowadays commonly used to refer to the month of August. Etym: the word *halo might be related to paddy sheaves bending under their weight at that moment of the year.
patriclan. Syn: halu
halyann. any person not belonging to either the Apatani, *Nyishi or Nyishi-related communities. Primarily denotes people from the plains, especially the Assamese. halyan-misann.
non-Apatanis in general; strangers. halyan takunn. (Bot.) peach; peach tree.
green vegetable; leafy vegetable, in general. A generic category comprising plants, either cultivated or wild, whose leaves are eaten by humans. Syn: haman sanii. Haman sanii pyuko ho? Where are
vegetables sold? aji padii hamann. (Bot.) Hairy Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta), a plant of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) . akho haman n. (Bot.)Creeping Woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata). Usage: Dutta. Syn: o haman; khuyi haman .
genda hamann. (Bot.) Redflower Ragleaf; fireweed (Crassocephalum crepidioides) Syn: halyan haman .giyan hamann. (Bot.) Cabbage leaf mustard (Brassica juncea var. rugosa) .hiibyo hamann. (Bot.) variety of vegetable . hiigu hamann. (Bot.) Japanese parsley (Oenanthe javanica).Var:hugu haman . hiikahaman n. (Bot.) variety of edible fern. Syn: hiika . hiipe hamann. (Bot.) Elatostema platyphyllum, a green leafy vegetable collected from the forests. hiiro hamann. (Bot.) variety of eggplant (Solanum sp.) bearing roundish berries in small
hanging clusters, possibly S. nigrum. hunyur hamann. (Bot.) variety of vegetable . khuyi haman n. (Bot.) Creeping Woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata, lit. 'sour vegetable). Syn: o haman; akho haman . kochi hamann. (Bot.) Dandelion (Taraxacum sp.). Literally 'bitter vegetable". The leaves are eaten and have a bitter taste . kukulyu haman n. (Bot.) Artemisia indica, an edible herb enjoyed as a vegetable. Var: kuku lyolye haman . luli hamann. (Bot.) Nepalese Smartweed (Persicaria nepalensis) . mepi hamann. (Bot.) Greater plantain (Plantago major), a common weed . ngiilyan khiikon.
(Bot.) Centella asiatica. The leaves are either boiled or eaten raw with *pila. Also used as medicine for stomach disorders . nyihi tami hamann. (Bot.) variety of vegetable. o khuyi hamanSee: khuyi haman; akho haman. pachu koyu haman n. (Bot.) variety of vegetable. pakhu harbu haman n. (Bot.) variety of vegetable. pato hamann. (Bot.) variety of vegetable . pulu tayi hamann. (Bot.) Spiny Amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus) . raru hamann. (Bot.) Piper brachystachyum. Var: rari haman. sia hamann. (Bot.) Chameleon Plant (Hottuniya cordata). Var: siyan haman . tabu choka hamann. variety of vegetable (lit. 'snake spit'). tale hamann. (Bot.) variety of garlic (Allium sp.), possibly Chinese Chives (A. tuberosum). Usage:
Hari, Bulla. Encycl: the word 'Tale Valley' is derived from that of this species that grows abundantly there. Var: lepi. Usage: Hong, Hija. . tape haman n. (Bot.) Tropical Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata). Usage: Hari; Bulla; Hong. Var: epe haman. Usage: Hija . tayi hamann. (Bot.) Amaranthus spp. lanchan tayi hamann. (Bot.) Joseph's coat (Amaranthus tricolor). yorkhun hamann. (Bot.) Toothache Plant/Paracress (Acmella oleracea), a flowering herb whose small leaves are eaten .
hanvr. to seek information; to inquire; to ask questions.
handavt. to seek information/inquire/ask questions the right way or correctly. Ant: hankha.
hanepron. (of finger widths) how many. Gramm: interrogative pronoun used for a countable number of items. Arii hane podoku? How high has the horn grown (in finger widths)?
hanepron. (of steps of a ladder, etc.) how many. Gramm: interrogative pronoun used for a countable number of items in a collection.
hangii 1. pron. something. Gramm: indefinite pronoun. In a negative sentence, gives the sense 'nothing', 'not anything'. A: Omo niinyipa hangii bagiiku ha? B: Hangiima. A: Did Omo bring something for
you two? B: nothing. 2. adj. some. Gramm: indefinite adjective. In a negative sentence, gives the sense 'no x'. Hangii diigo-tango nyima sii ha? Have you got
something to eat?
-hankiile [hã´kile] vsuff. as (temporal). Gramm:
Adverbial clause subordinating suffix combination added to verbs and adjectives, indicating a simultaneity between
two actions or events. Var: -hankele.
Usage: Hari, Bulla. Sarpu daka alyi supa hankele sarpu si sapidoku. The balloon got flattened as air was removed from it. Siika taru si tiitihankele barene. The rope broke as someone pulled it tightly. Omo mingohankiile aya bahi-balasiidaku ke. Omo has become very proudy after gaining wealth. Aliitotiika
luhankele. I told you to put it in!
hankavt. to seek information on; to inquire about.
hankhavt. to seek information/inquire/ask questions the wrong way or uncorrectly. Ant: handa.
hanyaadj. (of a child) young. hanyajaadj. (of a child) youngest. Mo oho milobo hanyaja hii. He is the youngest son. hanyayaadj. (of a child) younger.
1. post. on. Gramm: locative postposition to a noun or noun phrase. Yo hii yo
bade hao da. The meat is on the ceiling rack. 2. adv. up. Hao chato. Come
up! Hao cha'nge. Go up (upstair, uphill, etc.)! haoho [´hao´ho]
1. post. above. Gramm: locative postposition to a noun or noun phrase. Putu hao ho ude kone do. There is a house on the hill.
hapaadj. (of large surfaces) level; flat. Syn: halyan.
hapahen. larger part (esp. of a task or work). No aji mi hapahe, aru holobiidoku a cho lo. You have done almost all the weeding work of paddy field.
hapi vt. to hang something to dry it. Hiika yatii mi lochi ho hapito. Hang up that raincoat on the wall hanger so that it will dry out!
hapinn. vapour; steam. hapin tagyann. fog; mist.
hapun. (Anat.) diaphragm.
hapun 1. n. gap, in space or time. 2. adj. free (not busy) hapunmaadj. busy.
hapun See: harpu.
hapu-ripuadj. 1. generous. 2. popular.
har 1. vi-r. to
run. 2. vt-r. to drive a car. 3. vi-r. (of a vehicle) to go.
harvt-r. to bathe.
vt-r. to cut, esp. meat; to dismember.
haran piyon. variety of dance.
harba 1. vt. (of a plural subject) to run together. 2. vi. (of a plural subject) to drive a vehicle together. 3. vi. (of two or more vehicles) to go together.
harbavt. to hug; to embrace. Usage: Bulla. Var: haba. Usage: Hija, Hari. Syn: poba.
vi. to run on someone else's behalf. 2.
vt. to drive a vehicle on someone else's behalf; to drive for someone.
vi. (of a plural subject) to run together. 2.
vt. (of a plural subject) to drive a vehicle together. 3. vi. (of two or more vehicles) to go together.
vi. to run across. 2.
vt. to drive across. 3. vi. (of a vehicle) to go across.
vi. to run along with someone. 2.
vt. drive along with someone. 3. vi. (of a vehicle) to go along with some other vehicle(s).
harbov. to bathe along with someone.
harbyanadj. full, as of the moon. See: karbyan.
harchavi. 1. to run upward/northward. 2. to drive upward/northward.
harchen. (Anat.) V-shaped line formed by the two creases of the groin, at the junction of the torso with the legs; fold of the groin. Var: hache.
harchin 1. vi. to know how to run. 2. vt. to know how to drive.
hardin 1. vi. to run deliberately. 2. vt. to drive deliberately.
harga 1. vi. to run fast.2. vt. to drive fast.3. vi. (of a vehicle) to go fast.hargayavt. to run/drive faster. Aki ami mi hargayado. The dog runs faster than the
hargiivi. to run away. Diipyo hargiilyi ke, chituto. The thief is running away, catch him!
hargii vt. to take someone along with oneself for a run or a drive; to give a lift to someone.
harha vi. to run in/to drive in.
hargovt. to overtake/pass by running or driving.
1. vi. to run the wrong way . 2. vt. to drive the wrong way.
harhu adj. attractive, as of a man's personality; charming. Syn: harhu habya.
hariivi. to turn; to rotate; to spin; to
revolve. Fan si hariido. The fan is rotating. See: jirii; parii. Etym: from
*har, 'to run'.
to run over, as of a vehicle. harje-kojevi. to get oneself run over by a vehicle.
to run after someone or something. Ngunu niimpa pe hiikaneja halyan henju-miiju mi harjomondo nii? Why do we follow so much the ways of life of the people of the plains?
harkon. place or track for running/driving a vehicle.
to bore into something. Syn: ruko.
to desert; to run away.
harkun 1. vt. (of a plural subject) to run collectively/together. 2. vi. (of a plural subject) to drive collectively/together. 3. vi. (of two or more vehicles) to go collectively/together.
harkur 1. vi. to run back. 2. to drive back. Bus, passenger atan mi Ziro ho harchi chagiiteku la Hapoli ho harkurneku. After dropping passengers at Ziro, the bus has returned to Hapoli.
harkhiin. (Anat.) crown of the hair. Var: hakhii.
harkhiivt. (by a vehicle) to kill someone/some animal by running over him/it.Aki mi gari hakhiibiine. A dog was run over by a car (and is dead) Var: hakhii.
harkhu ahin. (Bot.) kiwi fruit. Syn: sanii taro.
harlann. (Anat.) thigh.
harlevt. 1. to run away from someone; to desert someone. 2. to go away, as of a vehicle. Taxi harlebiine. The taxi has gone away.
harminvt. to win in a race.
harnu vt. 1. to run before someone, or before anyone else does. 2. to drive before someone, or before anyone else does. 3. (of a vehicle) to go before someone, or before anyone else does. Ommo, nyibyapatiika, ngiimi bus harnubiilyi ke. Ommo, hurry up, I'm going to miss the bus. (lit. 'the bus is going to leave before me')
bucket; bin. Var: hapo. dachan harpon.
harpun. (Anat.) pelvic region of the human body. Var: hapu; hapun.
harpyo 1. vi. to run before anyone else does; to run first. 2. vt. to drive first/before anyone else does. 3. vi. (by a vehicle) to go first/before any other vehicle does.
harruadj. hard to cut, as of meat.
harsuvi. to take a bath; to wash one's body; to bathe oneself. Var: hasu. Usage: Hari.
harti n. rust. Usage: Hari. Var : marlan. Usage: Bulla. Harti aku. It has become rusted (lit. 'rust has come').
(Bot.) knot, as on a length of a bamboo. Bije hartin. Bamboo knot. 2. (Bot.) node, as on a rice stem; joint on a stem from which a leaf starts to grow. Enda piilo ho endi hii hartin karduku. In May-June nodes appear on paddy (stems). Var: hatin. Usage: Hari.
harto vt. to bathe; to give a bath to; to wash.
n. (Anat.) lungs.
haryahen:qual. greater part or quantity. Gramm: qualifying noun following another noun.
haryin 1. vt. (of a plural subject) to run together. 2. vi. (of a plural subject) to drive a vehicle together. 3. vi. (of two or more vehicles) to go together.
hasan:qual. (of two or more finger widths) 1. distinct; different. 2. one set for each.
Gramm: post-nominal qualifying noun.
hasan:qual. (of two or more steps of ladder, staircase, etc.) 1. distinct;
different. 2. one set for each.Gramm: post-nominal qualifying noun.
hasern. bamboo without any branch.
to dry by exposure; to heat over a fire, as is done with firewood.
1. n. frontside.Hiika hata daka ude hii Apa kii. That
house in front (of you) is Apa's house. 2. adj. preceding (previous, foregoing). See:
chavcn. to progress. hata ho post. in
front of. Inka dukan ka hata ho. In front of that shop. Syn: hata hii. Nobin, Tamo hata hii da. Nobin stands in front of Tamo.hata gandan.
major portion/part of something.
hatii adj. calm; confident. Sira lottery first prize latodo la ano hatiido. Sira is confident he will win the lottery. hatii-miiliiadv. calmly; not in a hurry; with patience. Train time ho alyidiike, hatii-miilii dulyato. The train may arrive on time, wait calmly.
hatinadj. 1. intimate, as of a relationship. 2. important; significant. Niika TV program kaniin si hatin ala kasudu pe ha? The way you are watching TV programs, is it of any importance? hatin biilin adv. 1. intimately. 2. significantly.
hatuvt. to hold firmly something that is caught in a basket or a net. Hatuto. Hold on (that caught fish)! Ngiika tarii mi bije si hatubiido. My shirt got caught on a bamboo. hatu-hapovt. to obstruct; to prevent from going through; to impede. Sira mi Hija ho arda konchi dado kabohe no, lenda ho mi miyu lo hatu-hapokotemapa. You go tomorrow morning to meet Sira at Hija, without being stopped by someone on the way.
Unka hayaduku. Unka is hungry. Uro kiilin hayadoku taka ah. Hangii diisii nyima
sii ha? Do you have something to eat? I'm famished.
Hayalyiho ka pila
khiibiinii, Ngiika ane. It's my mother who
cooks *pila for me when I am hungry. haya
myokhan. famine. haya pivcn. to starve.
hayann. (of fruit) pulp. papu hayan n. egg yolk.
hayen:num. one finger width, construed as a unit of linear measure. Gramm: used for referring to a particular object. When enumerating, as in school, *haye is replaced by *hakun. Var: hahe.
hayenum. (of steps of ladder, staircase, etc.) one. Gramm: used for referring to a particular object. When enumerating, as in school, *hakun is used in place of *haye. Var: hae.
hayev. to be kidnapped or caught by a spirit.
-he/-ye 1. num-r. one. Gramm: numeral root used
for combining with classifiers ending
with a vowel to indicate one specimen of a
of objects. Used to specify a particular object. Papu puhe/puye. One egg. See: -e; -nge. 2. part. part; quantity; amount. Gramm: partitive particle attached to verbs, used to refer to a selection of a
part (or quantity) out of a whole (or amount). Also suffixes classifier roots and certain numerals to form numerals when they occur associated with nouns. Tiiko innaniipahe kontii bida. Give just enough money for the journey. (Lit. 'give only the amount of money that is needed for going'). Pota taye. One sheet of paper. Alo lokanuhe. Seven days.
1. vi-r. to blow, as of wind or any type of air-producing device. Alyi hedu. The wind blows. 1. vt-r. to blow; to send out air from the mouth. Inka
fan simi buto la alyi oye helyato! Take that hand-held
fan and blow some air with it!
he vt-r. to remove soil, esp. by levering with a tool (knife, shovel, stick, *kele, etc.); to dig out with the help of some levering tool or lever mechanism. Mo belcha lo kiidi helado. He/she is digging the soil with a shovel. Hiika haman atan mi heto. Extract those vegetables from the soil!
he vt-r. to operate a lock, either to fasten or unfasten it.
hevt-r. to knit; to embroider. Anyo sweater heladone. Anyo was knitting a sweater.
hevt-r. to take from a recipient or serve food by using a ladle or spoon. Aping heto. Take/serve some rice [by using a spoon]!
hevt-r. to sharpen something using a knife.
-hevsuff. go and [do]! Gramm: Motion modal suffix attached to verbs having two or more syllables, used as hortative/imperative when the addressee, in carrying out the action identified by the verb, is moving away from the speaker. Often best rendered in English by 'Go and [do]!'. Yasan batehe. Go and fetch some firewood!
Inka hagya mi miikohe. Open that door
(which is located at some distance from both the speaker and the addressee)! Momi
luriihe, kala-kapasiidu pa. Go and talk to him/her, so that you know each
other! Tatu mi more ho ingiila yasan tagiihe. Take Tatu along with you to the forest and make him cut wood.
-hevsuff. stuck. Gramm: Result suffix indicating that the action identified by the verb results in something getting stuck or caught.
hebavt. (of a plural subject) to blow together.
hebavt. (of a plural subject) to remove soil or dig out together.
hebavt. (of a plural subject) to knit/embroider together.
hebavt. (of a plural subject) to take/serve food with a ladle or spoon together.
heba vt. (of a plural subject) to sharpen something together with a knife.
hebinn. (Bot.)variety of bamboo.
hebin vt. (of a plural subject) to remove soil or dig together/jointly.
hebo vt. to blow along with someone.
hebo vt. to take/serve food with a ladle or spoon along with someone.
hebo vt. to remove soil/dig out along with someone.
hebo vt. 1. to embroider/knit along with others. 2. to help someone embroider/knit something.
hebo vt. to sharpen something with a knife along with someone.
hedun. pork intestines and fat, a special cut of meat from the pig sacrificed at *Myoko. Encycl: the eldest female representative of the patrilineage (*uru) is entitled to receive this particular share of meat. It is viewed as a gift from the younger 'sisters" of the patrilineage towards their eldest sister (*ami akhaja). In olden days an oil was made from it, which the Apatani ladies used to apply on their long hair. Syn: pidu.
heduvt. to damage or destroy by blowing. Alyi piilyi hedubiine. The wind destroyed the hut.
hehuvt. to stimulate (intellectually). hehu-miihuvt. to stimulate.
hekovt. to dig a hole with the help of some levering tool or lever mechanism. Labourers atan si kiidi hekolado. The labourers are digging the soil.
hekovt. to unfasten a lock. Ant: hepin.
-hekuvsuff. go and [do] now! Gramm:
hortative/imperative suffix occuring at the end of the
predicate suffix chain, attached to verbs having two or more
syllables. Used when the addressee is moving away from the speaker in
carrying out the action indicated by the verb, but giving a more abrupt
and urgent sense to the order or request than the simple form in *-he.
Can be rendered in
English by 'Go and [do] now!'. Obing mi lenda ho inriiheku. Go and
meet Obing on the way now!
conj. 1. and. Gramm: numeral conjunction. Alyan hela yango. Fifteen. Syn: le. 2. and; then. Gramm: conjunction used to link two verbs envisaged as two successive actions. Ngo so apin diite hela ato. I came here after I had my meal (lit. 'I had my meal and I came'). Ayo
yoye, Manu hende-hende hela, imitalyiku la
biidi ako hempatii. One night, Manu kept thinking over and
over, and as she was about to sleep she imagined a plan. See: lala.
hela [´hela]adj. 1. clever; smart. Syn: piibi. 2. understanding; good-hearted; kind-hearted. Mo
ano heladu. He/she is a very kind-hearted person. Tari ano helado. Tari is a very understanding guy.
Syn: hela-kala. hela-miilaadj. understanding; thoughtful.
helin-miilinvt. to create; to invent; to fabricate.
helo vi. to feel bad or disappointed due to someone's action or word.
helonii n. forgiveness.
helya vi. to be patient.
helyaadj. gimp, as of a person.
helyan kadavt. to look after; to take care of.
helyeadj. cool, moderately cold (esp. referring to food).
helyu vt. 1. to fail to think. 2. to forget.
hembavt. (of a plural subject) to think together.
hembovt. to think along with someone.
hembyo vt. 1. to like, to be
fond of. 2. to yearn/wish for something.
hemen. pauper; poor man.
heme vt. 1. to swear; to take oath. 2. to promise.
hemivt. to hope for something; to expect to get something. Syn: hemi-kami.
hemin-henja adj. having an intimate, open and honest attitude towards someone.
distrust; to suspect; to doubt.
hemovi. to rest. Syn: dumo.
hempa [hem´pa] vt-r. 1. to think about something; to manage to think. Ayo
yoye, Manu hende-hende hela, imitalyiku la
biidi ako hempatii. One night, Manu kept thinking over and
over, and as she was about to sleep she imagined a plan. 2. to remember. Syn: hempa-hempa.
pota bimajalo, ngunu henin kane, nunu hempa-hempatolyatiika. Though
letters cannot reach you we keep
you in our heart, do remember us. 2.
to feel. Siisida kii
la ngo ano renge hempa dane. Recently,
I have been feeling really tired.
hempavt. to ignore. Syn: hempa-heya.
adv. very. Siika putu si
hemper biiledo. This mountain is very slippery. Niimi kapa lala ngo hemper hempyodo. I am very glad to meet you. Var: hempii. Usage: Bulla.Syn: henter.
hempuvi. to be mistaken; to think wrongly. Ngo hempubiidu ke,
Paris hii Germany kii mapa France ka capital ke. I'm
mistaken, Paris is not the capital city of Germany but that of France.
vi. to think like someone. Ngiika
ane hempu hokii henpama. No one thinks like my mother. 2. similar
in thought. See: kapu. hempu-kapuadj. alike to; similar to.
hempun-henka vi. to be confused. See: apun-aka.
hempya vt. to cancel something/some work through thought.
hempyo [´hempjo:] adj. 1. happy; delighted. Ngo niimi
kapa lala ano hempyodo. I am very happy to meet you. 2. delightful; pleasant; auspicious. Anyan niti ka hempyo alo so .... In
this auspicious day of the New
Year.... hempyodopa mii vca. to please; to make someone happy. hempyojaadj. happiest, delighted.
hii hempyopa apin diidu. We are happy to eat rice
(lit. 'we eat rice happily'). hempyoyaadj. happier.Arjinlyi ho
ahu hii hempyoyado. One feels better when stretching one's body. hempyo-hempaadj. seemingly happy. Mo hempyo-hempa. He/she looks happy. Aya hempyo-hempa!interj. wow! incredible! Gramm: interjection used to express astonishment or admiration. A: Siilo lottery ho gari paji biine. B: Aya hempyo-hempa! A: Today I won a car in the lottery. B: wow! great!
hempyo vi. to feel guilty.
hemyovt. to plan.
hen [´hẽ]vt-r. 1. to think (that); to guess (that). Hiila pe
hendo. I think
so. Ngo hendo nii
no miyu denki ako. I think that you are a good/nice person. Obing mi ka, kamijapa kamakuniin hii, ngo hendo nii, nyanngo duku do. The last time I saw Obing was, I think, five years ago. No
ayimada Itanagar tone pe la hento nii, hiira tochinkiilyi po? I guess
you have been to Itanagar recently, are you going again? 2. to think/worry about something. Anyo Ziro ho chalanii miichi la ano heladone. Anyo was thinking very much of going to Ziro. 3. to love or have affection for someone. 4. to plan on. Niida
Itanagar apa hendo? When do you plan on coming to Itanagar? Var: hin. Usage: Hija.
henchin. (Bot.) variety of bramble bearing edible yellow berries, which, unlike *jimpu jilyin, are not
arranged in clusters. Possibly Yellow Himalayan Raspberry (Rubus ellipticus). Var: henji.
henchi-heyi vt. to think of
something that is known to self, but unknown to others.
hencho n. tickle. hencho miivcn. to tickle.
hendavt. 1. to recall
something at a right time. 2. to think/guess/reason correctly. henda-henkavt. to guess.
hende-hendevt. to keep on thinking about something again and again. Ayo
yoye, Manu hende-hende hela, imitalyiku la
biidi ako hempatii. One night, Manu kept thinking over and
over, and as she was about to sleep she imagined a plan.
1. vt. to understand; to get or make clear; to figure out. Hendersiidu ha? Is it clear? Ngo henderlama I don't
understand. Ngo, hu ya pe hiila henderlamato. I could not make out who he is.Yo acho dotokula, niibo mi diichiku henderlakuma. There are many kinds of meat, I don't know which one to eat. Biiso hendermapa. Without fear. 2. to remember. See: tader. Etym: from *hen, 'to
think', *-der 'make clear'.
good person; kind person; gentleman. 2. adj. a) gentle (mild-mannered, not stern,
coarse or violent). b) considerate of others. c) righteous (of
persons: virtuous, free from sin or
guilt; of actions; morally good). Syn: hendi-miidi.
henga [hẽ´ga] vt. 1. to bother/worry about someone or something. 2. to be concerned or troubled about something. henga-henkha [´hẽ´ga´hẽ´xa] 1. vt.
to trouble; to annoy. Abu kela la
niimi henga-henkhadopa miibitamasii ke. I will not trouble you by
writing too long. Etym: from *hen, 'to
think', *-ga 'much/a lot/often'. 2. vi. to be troubled; to be annoyed. Aya henga-henkha. I'm very much troubled.
keep something in mind or in memory. Etym: from *hen, 'to think', *age 'to stick'.
hengii vt. 1. to cause someone to think something. 2. to learn.
hengi-hemo vi. to wait for a moment.
hengin adj. proud. Syn: hengin-hentii.
hengovt. to think before someone else does.
hengovt. to miss one thing while thinking about something.
hengya v. to think wrongly.
henhan vt. to think (that); to guess (that). Molu nunuka colony ho dududo hiila
(ngo) henhan kiile. I thought they live in your colony.
henjun. way of thinking; attitude; behaviour. henju-henmyon. character; way of thinking; mode of thought. Aju-amyo mi niimpa kadu? Henju-hemyo mi no katotiika. Why
are you looking at somebody's features? Look at the character. henju-miijun. behaviour, character. Syn:
think; to imagine; to plan. Syn: henka-myanka. Henkatotiika ah! Think about it!
henkaniinn. idea; opinion; view; plan.
henkiadj. sincere. Syn: denki.
henkoadj. any. henko akopron. any one. Syn: henko kone. Henko kone bidato. Give me any one. henko-henkopron. randomly. Siika Myoko so ngo pore o tangiito la henko-henko giipa-giiya gikanando. During this Myoko festival I feel like drinking lots of black beer, and fall and lie her and there.
henkov. to sympathize with; to be in sympathy with.
henko-hempeadj. confused. Usage: Hari, Bulla. Var: hinko-himpe. Usage: Hija. henko-hempe mii vca. to make someone confused. Usage: Hari, Bulla. Var: hinko-himpe mii. Usage: Hija.Ngiika oho hii, abi-tarii atan mi school indu pa riilaku lala, siisi intekuma luda. Si ngiimi hinko-himpe miipabiido ke ah. My child, after buying clothes to go to school, has now refused to go. That has made me confused on what to do.
henkur vt. to regret.
henkhav. to think wrongly. Henkhalyi hoka tonsernii, ngiika ane. It's my mother who advise me
when I am in a wrong thought.
henkhiiadj. insufficient; scarce, as of food. henkhii-milyinn. shortage of food; famine.
henkhii vt. to have no more desire to repeat something after having had a bad experience. Syn: henkhii-miikhii.
hennii [´hẽni] 1. n. one who loves (unspecified). 2. n. one who is affectionate (unspecified); hearty (cordial, warm). 3. adj. (in a nominal, adjectival or relative phrase or clause) affectionate.
henniin[´hẽnĩ]n. 1. thought; preoccupation; expectation. Supun miilan ka heniin hii, ali-aho mi ayadopa. Everyone's desire is to get a healthy crop. (extract from Dree Anthem). 2. love; affection.
hennyo v. to think without a purpose.
hennga vt. to be interested in something. hennga-henkaadj. frustrated.
henngu-here vt. to distinguish; to discriminate.
hennyovt. to think without a set purpose; to let one's mind wander.
hennyoniinn. thoughts without purpose.
hennyo-miinyov. to accustom (oneself or another), esp.
through practice; to get used to; to familarize (oneself or another)
hensanadj. biased; prejudiced; partial, as of an opinion, statement or thought. hensan-miisanadj. biased; prejudiced; partial, as of a behaviour.
hensanii n. thing to be thought of.
(of feeling, mind) free from worry; disembarrassed. See: daser. henser kaduadj. left with no way of action; marked by an inability to act or react; helpless.
hensi-hengaadj. uneasy; disturbed by anxiety or apprehension.
hensi-hensi vt. to keep one's thought to oneself, without letting others know about it.
hensuv. to love each other. Syn: hensu-myansu. hensu-heravi. to feel disheartened or discouraged.
henter [´hẽtər]adv. very. Syn: ano;
hentiiadj. proud; haughty. hentiipaadv. haughtily, with arrogance.
hentu vt. to miss someone; to think of someone who is far away.
hentin 1. vt. to rely
on someone; to trust someone. 2. adj.
hepapart. about; approximately (referring to numbers). Jarpinye hepa. About eight thousands. Syn: pa.
hepivt. to dry something by blowing on it, as of wind or any type of
hepavt. to remove soil with the help of some levering tool or mechanism. Labourer si belcha lo hepalado. The labourer is removing soil with a shovel.
hepinvt. to fasten a lock. Ant: heko.
hepya vt. to unlock.
heru 1. n. sorrow; sadness. 2. adj. sad; unhappy; feeling sorrow for. Nii
na, hangii herumapa sii ha? What, is there something wrong? 3. vi. to moan. heru-henkavi. to be or feel depressed. heru-myankhan. sadness. heruyo!interj.
heta n. (Agr.) flat wooden baton pointed at one end, that is used for remodeling of dams and fields. Usage: Hija. Syn: aji heta. Var: hiita/aji
hiita. Usage: Bulla.
hete n. (Agr.) trench dug into a paddy field for providing shelter and spawning ground for fishes. Usage: Hija. Var: parkho. Usage: Hari, Bulla .
hetevt. to throw or push something down by a bending action. Alyi hetenii
sanii atan si giyo-gichi gila donyado. The trees which have been
uprooted by the wind lie around haphazardly on the ground.
heter [hetər] part. even. Gramm:particle usually signaling that 'even' the marked noun participates in the action/state indicated by the verb. Ame-aje heter apin nyikuma ha? Isn't there [even] a little bit of rice left? iche heteradv. 1. even a little. 2. (in negative sentences) not even a little, not at all. Mo moka aba mi iche heter
giima ke an? He/she doesn't ressemble to his/her father at all, does he/she? kone heterpron. even one. Gramm: indefinite pronoun of person. When used in a negative sentences, gives the sense 'no-one'. School ho miyu kone heter nyima. There is no one in the school (lit. 'not even one person').
heuvt. to grudge; to feel envy/jealousy towards someone. Syn: kau.
heyin. particular portion of the innards of an animal, esp. pig.
hi [hi:] n. fermented, dried bamboo shoot. Var: hiyi. See: hikhu. hi pike n. variety of *pike prepared with finely chopped dried bamboo
hi vt-r. to steer; to guide something esp. by means of a device.
vt-r. to hit with a stick or stick-like object.
hi vt-r. to fill liquid in a bottle or jar.
hi vt-r. (by priest) to chant or recite, esp. during a *murun.
vt-r. to bask in a fire or in the sun; to warm oneself.
vt-r. 1. to search, as in the pocket; to
frisk. 2. to grope.
hi vt-r. 1. to
caress. 2. to smoothen something by brushing.
hi vt-r. to defecate; to void feces from the bowels.
hi vt-r. (by fruiting tree) to fruit; to bear fruit.
hi vt-r. to whip
hibu [´hi:bu]n. beak.
grimace. Syn. hinyi.
hihii-hikhevt. to steer; to twist.
hijanvt. to wring; to twist with force, as water out of a cloth. Var: hija.
hijen. portable rice beer vessel made of bamboo. Syn:
hikavi. to smile; to grin.
hikavt. to search, as in the pocket; to
hikavt. to caress; to fondle.
hikevt. to twist. hike-hibev. to turn (esp. one's body) in the opposite direction; to turn aside/away
hikhan [hĩ´xã̃] n:num. thirty. Syn: hinkhanhe.
hikhen. (Zool.) generic term for small birds of the passerine family with beige or light
brown plumage, including Hodgson's Tree Pipit (Anthus hodgsoni).
hikhii vt. to wring.
hikhiinvi. to feel like being unable to
chew, e.g. after eating some sour item such as a citrus fruit. Etym: from *ahi, 'tooth', *-khiin, 'overdone'.
hikhun. fermented, sliced or diced bamboo shoot, used as flavouring ingredient in many dishes. See:
hi. Encycl: fresh bamboo shoots are washed, peeled and cut into slices, then stored in a tightly closed bamboo-mat container along with banana or leaves from a particular plant known as "ekkam" . This mixture is kept for fermentation for about one week. The shoots are dried after fermentation and stored for consumption. See: hirin; hiyi. hikhu pike n. *pike with finely chopped fermented bamboo
hilevi. to sneer; to laugh in a way that shows
contempt; to grin.
hilin vi. to fructify, as of a fruit tree; to become fruitful. Ahi hilindo. Fruits are coming out.
hilu n. (Anat.) tooth gum (gingiva).
hiluadj. smooth and shiny; silken; sleek.
himen. kid; child; youngster. Normally refers to a boy, but can be used to indicate both boys and girls, especially in the plural form. Lampung
hime chikho kone. Lampung is a clever boy. hime atan n. kids; children youngsters(plural form of *hime). hime hoadvphr. during childhood. Ankha hime ho ano riilanne. Ankha weighed a lot (i.e. was very healthy) during her childhood.
n:num. three. Gramm: numeral root used
for combining with classifiers to indicate three specimens of a collection
of objects. Used in counting only (as in one, two, three...), without
reference to a particular object. See: hinnge.
hinvt-r. to pinch.
hindii adj. crabby; bad-tempered.
hingiiniin. third (one).
hinnge [hĩŋe] n:num. three. Gramm: numeral root
used for combining with classifiers to
indicate three specimens of a
of objects. Used to specify a particular set. See: hin.
hiniin [hĩ:nĩ] n. hitting, of a stick; hit.
hiniinn. filling of a bottle or jar with some liquid.
hiniinn. chanting of a priest, esp. during a *murun; chant. subu hiniinn. ritual chanting of the priest before the sacrifice of cattle at the begining of a *murun.
hiniinn. search (e.g. in one's pocket); searching.
hiniinn. caress; caressing.
hiniinn. defecation; defecating.
hiniinn. fructification (the producing of fruit); fructifying.
hinkhavt. to scratch a surface.
hinkhen. shaftment, a traditional unit of linear measure corresponding to the width of the hand and outstretched thumb (roughly equal to two hand-breadths).
hinko-himpe See: henko-hempe.
hintu vt. to pinch tightly; to squeeze tightly between the fingers. Syn: hintu-hinpo.
hinyi See: hichi.
hipivt. to dry one's clothes by standing/sitting near the fire.
hipya n. (Anat.) incisor tooth. See: hiran;diiphyo
hiran n. (Anat.) molar. Etym: from *ahi, 'tooth', *aran, 'bottom'. See: hipya;diipyo
hirinn. fermented, sliced or diced bamboo shoot having an acidic taste. Encycl: the topmost parts of fresh bamboo shoots are sun-dried, washed, peeled, cut longitudinally or crushed, then left to ferment in a bamboo basket or bamboo section which is filled and tightly covered with a particular variety of jungle leaves. After one to three months the shoots are ready for consumption and can be kept for two to three months. See: hikhu; hiyi. hirin piken. variety of *pike prepared with fermented bamboo
n. tusk, as of a boar.
hisu-hosuadj. nervous about doing something; confused to do something.
hitevi. (by a tree) to stop fruiting; to stop bearing fruits.
hiterv. to grin wickedly at someone to tease him/her.
hitinvt. to bash against the ground, esp. small animals (rats, snakes, etc.) to kill them.
hiyin. fermented, sliced bamboo shoots which are sun-dried and stored in bamboo baskets. Encycl: after being fully sun-dried, the topmost parts of fresh bamboo
shoots are cut in very fine, tiny dices, then left ot ferment. See: hikhu; hirin.
hii[´hi] 1. dem. the; that.
demonstrative. Nominative case. Often best rendered in English by the
definite article 'the', but implying the idea that the object or person
is distant from the speaker, in space or time. Ngiika aki
kapaniin hii pulumane. The dog whom I saw was not white. See: si; hiika. 2. pron. that. Gramm: addressee-proximate demonstrative pronoun. Nominative case. Hii ngiika ude. That is
Hii piigo amanii ke. Kupato. That is useless. Throw it away! 3. adv. there
(distant from the speaker but close to the addressee, used to denote an
action that is taking place at the time of speaking or writing). 4. post. nominative case marker. Ngiika armyan hii Kanno. My name is
Kanno. 5. vt-r. so he/she says/said.Aba, apin diilyi ho luriisiiyo hiidu. Father tells us not to talk during the meals. Tapu school inne po? Ngo momi inlya hiito niin. Tapu has gone
to school, hasn't he? I told him not to go. hii yu keinterj. He/she said so; so he/she said.
hii vt-r. to bind or tie.
hii vt-r. to collect, esp. vegetables.
hiivt-r. to put something vertically into
the ground, as a stick, post, etc.; to drive in; to insert.
-hii...-khe vsuff. shifted; changed; moved; exchanged. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something has its place or position changed, or is exchanged through the action identified by the verb. Bahii-bakhe. To carry something from one place to another/to turn something while carrying it/to exchange something that is being carried with somebody.
hiibaadj. following; next. King siilaku la, hiika hiiba kingdom ho nii miineku? After the king's death what happened in the kingdom? hiiba
ho post. after. Lonye-lohinhe ka hiiba ho, ... Two-three days
later. School inja lala kula la hiika hiiba pa/ho college inkindo. After school completion one has to go to college. Chatung ka hiiba ho Tamo akindo. After Chatung, Tamo will come. hiibapaadv. following; next. hiika hiibapaadvphr. after that; next.
hiibin. 1. tip of bamboo (including smaller branches or twigs). 2. single bamboo branch.
hiichin. name given to one of the two composite groups celebrating
the Myoko festival simultaneaoulsy, comprising Hija, Duta, Mudang-Tage and Bamin-Michi. See: hiite.
hiigu hamann. (Bot.) Japanese Parsley (Oenanthe javanica), a variety of vegetable. Usage: Hari. Var:hugu haman.Usage: Hija .
hiiho saniin. (Bot.) Common Walnut (Juglans regia).
hiijan [hi´dʑã] n. 1. new generation. 2. newborn.
hiijan apin [hi´dʑã a´piŋ] n. meal offered as a contribution at childbirth. hiijan liiha [hi´dʑã liha] n. 1. ceremonial basket used to bring food contributions for the coming of a newborn. 2. variety of basket used by the mother of a newborn during her postnatal
confinement. hiijan miiniin. formal presentation of gifts by the bride's parents to the children of a newly married couple during the wedding ceremony (*mida). Usually consists of a Tibetan prayer bell (*maji) and meat. hiijan yopon. basket containing various pieces of meat that is presented to the newly married couple during the *hiijan miiniin ritual.
hiiji tamin. See tami.
hiijo n. (Bot.) variety of bamboo very similar to *bije (Phyllotachis bambusoides) but having a thinner skin. The stem is strong and for that reason commonly used to make pillars. Var: hijo.
hiikan. (Bot.) variety of edible fern, which the Apatanis boil and prepare with some salty sauce. Mostly available during
Myoko time. Syn: hiika haman.
hiika [´hika]dem. that. Gramm: addressee-proximate
demonstrative; genitive case. Used to refer to an object or
person located at some distance from the speaker but closer to
the addressee, or to point to an event that is distant in time. Best rendered in English by the demonstrative adjective 'that'. Hiika ude hii perodo. That house is big. Hiika ball mi ngiimi
lato pe. Take that ball for me. Hiika anyan ho. That year. See: inka. hiika
atandem. those. Gramm: addressee-proximate plural demonstrative; genitive case. Hiika hime atan hii khelido Those kids are playing. hiika atanpron. these; those.Gramm: addressee-proximate plural demonstrative pronoun. No bus jalo tempo latulakindo. Hiika atan inka arun so domodu. You can take a bus or a tempo. They stop over here. hiika hiipron. that. Gramm: addressee-proximate
demonstrative pronoun used to refer to an object or person
located at some distance from the speaker but closer to the
addressee. Hiika hii ngiika ude. That is my house. Syn: hii.hiika hoadv. there, over there (distant from the speaker
but close to the addressee, or used to denote an action that is distant in time).
ho ngo ngiika cell phone mi bapasiito. I lost my cell phone there (by
your side). hiika hopaconj. for that reason; because of that. Gramm: Complementizing conjunction used to link a factual information with its cause. Ngo billyo doli achiladoto, hiika hopa school amato. Yesterday I had fever, so I did not come to school. hiika myodu hoadvphr. 1. at that exact time. 2. in the meantime.
hiikane [´hikane] pron. that much. Gramm: indefinite pronoun of quantity (as size, amount, etc.). Hiikane tuniipa ngo miiladiima! I may not be able to do it so quickly! hiikanejapron. so much. Ngunu niimpa pe hiikaneja halyan henju-miiju mi harjomondo nii? Why do we follow so much the ways of life of people of the plains?
hiikun. large twisted chank bead put on *sampu tasan .
hiila [hila] 1. conj. like
that; thus; in that way. Hiila ke ah? Isn't it like that? Hiila do. It is/it does (confirming a statement or answering positively to a question). Hiilama
ha lo? Is'nt it like that? No, VKV ho masii ha, purido nii?
Do you study in VKV school? Iin, hiila cho. Yes I do. Mo hiila lune.
He/she said like that. Ngiika armyan Tatu hiila. My name is Tatu. 2. then; therefore. Gramm: conjunction used to express a temporal connection between two sentences, or some kind of causal relationship. Mo aji
miinasiila dadu hiila puri-riderkuma. Being completely absorbed in his/her work in the fields he/she could not study properly. Insiima ko indu hiila no
kiiri inlyu-siibiitalyi ke. If you go to the wrong place you will suffer lose in
your business. 3. that; to (in indirect or reported speech). Gramm: complementizing conjunction used in direct and indirect speech to report what someone says, think or does. Tama ngiimi siika envelope mi niimi bitolya hiila lune. Tama asked me to give this envelope to
you. Hiila pe
hendo. I think
so (polite). Siika ahi mi bachin hiila
ludu. One calls this fruit 'bachi'. Inka balu si nunukii hiila chindu ha? Do you know that garden is yours? Spain,
World Cup tuminkendo hiila ngiika agin ho ahetayi ha no? Will you make a bet
with me that Spain is going to win the World Cup? hiilajaconj. precisely; exactly like that. hiila do phr. so it is/so it does. Tapyo si
hajmola hiilyan dota ka aha. Hiila do nyan. A: This Tapyo salt tastes like Hajmola. B: It does. hiila haint. tag is it like that? hiila
keinterj. 1. Wow! Incredible! For goodness sake! Usage: interjection used to express amazement, stupefaction or wonderment. 2. Yes it is. hiila
supposing; in that case; if that is so. Gramm: subordinate conjunction of condition. Occurs at the end of the subordinate clause, preceding the main clause. hiila lodaadvphr. like
that only. hiila ma advphr. not like
that. Syn: hiila na ma. Hiila
na ma hempado. I
don't think so.
hiila ma ha enaint. tag isn't it? Gramm: negative
question tag occuring at the end of a positive statement or sentence,
roughly equivalent to English 'isn't it?', 'don't you?', etc. Unlike
in English it has a fixed form. Syn: hiila ma ha lo?hiila pe ha int. tag is it? Gramm: positive
question tag occuring at the end of a negative statement or sentence,
roughly equivalent to English 'is it?', 'do you?', etc. Unlike
in English it has a fixed form. hiila siiphr.
(It's) like that only. hiila yaadvphr.
rather like that. hiila yu haint. tag
is that so? A: Mo anyi anii-oho sii pe ha? B: Chinma, hiila yu ah? A: Are they mother and son? B: I don't know, is that so? Syn: hiila yun.
hiilyanpart. 1. like; as. Gramm:
semblative particle following a noun or a pronoun, indicating that the
subject shares the same quality as the marked noun/pronoun, or performs
the action indicated by the verb in a similar way. Insi aki hiilyan ela. That looks like a dog. Alyi atan
ka nyago hii ano alerdo. Molu kiidi mi buldozzer hiilyan durlado.
Pigs have very powerful snouts. They can turn over the ground like
bulldozers. Mo, Obing hiilyan, luju-lumyo ayado. He is a polite fellow, just like Obing. Tapyo si hajmola hiilyan dota ka aha. This tapyo salt tastes like hajmola. 2. as though; as if. Mo yasan bananmanii hiilyan bado. He is collecting
firewood as if he does not want to.
Syn: hiilyan-hiilyan. Momi kapatonii hiilyan-hiilyan hensuto henderlamato. I thought (as if) I had seen him/her somewhere but I did not remember.
hiimi [himi:] n. widow. hiimi-miji. n. widow and orphan. Usage: in a metaphorical sense, the compound word *hiimi-miji can convey the meaning of a weakness of which people take unwanted advantage.
hiimi 1. dem. the; that.
demonstrative. Accusative case. 2. pron.
addressee-proximate demonstrative pronoun. Accusative case. No
michama koda hiimi kapakendo cho. If you are not blind you should see that.
hiinkane [´hĩkane] pron. that much. Gramm: indefinite pronoun of quantity (as
size, amount, etc.). Hiinkane loda abu
bimajalo ayanedii ke. It is not necessary to give that much to them. Sokii la ado dope ha? Is it too far
from here? Ma, hiinkane adoma ke. No, not at all, it's not that far
away. Hiinkane aduyo. Don't speak that much! Var: hiimkane.
hiininadj. concentrated, as of food or beverage.
hiineinterj. that's it; that's all.
1. n. shame.2. adj. ashamed; shameful; shy. Mo ngiimi hiinyandopa lubiine. His/her talks made me shameful. hiinyan biison. prestige
(literally 'shy-frightened'). hiinyan luvcn. to verbally insult someone (esp. in front of others); to humiliate. hiinyanmiivcn. to insult someone by doing something
(esp. in front of others); to humiliate. hiinyan mohin. shame; disgrace. Sarii ngiimi hiinyan mohi dado pa gada. the Teacher scolded me in such a way that I felt ashamed. hiinyan subun. ‘shameful mithun', a
mithun given as a compensation for a divorce or an offense to customary law such as adultery or molestation of a woman. hiinyan tamin. (Bot.) Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica). Etym: literally 'shy weed'.
hiinyipron. those two. Gramm: addressee-proximate dual demonstrative pronoun. Occurs immediately after the marked noun. See: sinyi.
hiinyo n. postnatal confinement period of ten days traditionally imposed to mothers after delivery.
hiinyur haman n. (Bot.) variety of green vegetable.
hiipa [hi´pa] dem.
For that. Gramm: addressee-proximate
demonstrative; purposive case. Ngo
taxi pailakindo pe ha? Iin, hiipa, no taxi stand bo dolyikindo. Can I
get a taxi? Yes, for that you have to go to the taxi stand.
hiipe hamann. (Bot.) Elatostema platyphyllum, a green leafy vegetable collected from the forests.
hiiraadv. again. hiirapaadv. subsequently;
again. Kii, hiira nyibya kapasiisa ha. Ok, let's meet again soon.
hiirin. solid particle, usually small; dust. Syn: hiiri-hiikho.
hiirii name name of one primordial protective deity.
hiirii n. variety of traditional dance performed by a chain of male members that takes place
at the house of the performer of a *murun, marked by foot-stamping and chorus.hiirii khanniinn. *hiirii chanting.
hiiroadj. 1. first 2. (of children in a family) eldest. 3. (of
land, property in a household) most important or prominent. Hiiro
akha oho ja. Eldest
hiiro hamann. (Bot.) variety of eggplant (Solanum
sp.) bearing roundish berries in small hanging clusters.
hiisann. (Agr.) grass; fodder. Sii hiisa diidu. Cows eat grass (i.e. are herbivorous). Subu
atan hii more-giira ho hiisan diila sandu. Mithuns subsist by eating grass in
forests and pastures. hiisan diinii 1. n. grass eater. 2. adj. herbivorous; grass-eating. Siidin atan hii hiisan diinii achu-amyo. Deers are
hiiso n. (Bot.) variety of bamboo growing outside Ziro, having a curved stem. Syn: bihe.
hiitanpron. like that; that way.
hiitampapron. like that; in that way. Hiitampa ha? Is it like that? Hiitampa ngiimi
kadiyo. Don't stare at me like that!
hiiten. name given to one of the two composite groups celebrating
the Myoko festival simultaneaoulsy, comprising Bulla and Hari. See: hiichi.
hiiyi tamin. (Bot.) Billygoat-weed/Chick weed/Goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), a common weed.
ho [´ho] 1. post. in; at; to. Gramm: locative case marker indicating a place at intermediate
distance, or referring to a time or event within which an event takes place or is envisaged. May be used for the lative case, indicating a motion to a location. Also has a comitative sense 'with' when following postposition *agin. Mo lemba ho dudu. He/she lives in a village. Hiika chair ho duto. Sit in that chair (by your side)! Ngo Ziro ho indu. I moved to Ziro. Mo aro konchi ho inne. He/she went early in the morning. 2. adv. there; then. Ho nii
kapatii? What did you see there? Ngo ho aji miila dokindo. I shall be cultivating the
field then. ho kodaconj. then, if that is so; in that case. ho ma kodaconj.
if not; otherwise. ho nii hiila inter. tag So what? A: Ata, guritama po? 5:30 doku ka ah. B: Ho nii hiila. Ngiimi imikiinempe. A: Sister, won't you wake up? It's half past five. B: So what? Let me sleep.
hoconj. and. Gramm: conjunction used to coordinate two sentences.
hovt-r. to scratch to stop an itch.
ho vt-r. tocollect with the hands.
hovt-r. to talk in a wordy or indecisive manner; to waffle.
hovt-r. to remove, esp. weeds; to de-weed. Aji hodu. Weeding the field.
hovt-r. 1. to feed (animals); to give food to animals. No alyi mi diigo hoto ha? Did you give food to the pigs? 2. to treat someone to a meal. Pukun apin honiin. Meal served collectively to the participants of a *murun. Syn:
hovt-r. to catch or hold in a noose, esp. an animal. Tamo hiika subu mi saha lo hone. Tamo caught that mithun with a rope.
-hovsuff. away; aside. Gramm: result suffix indicating that the object is removed or put aside as a result of the action denoted by the verb.
-hovsuff. mark. Gramm: result suffix indicating that a mark is left as a result of the action identified by the verb.
ho byointerj. enough! stop it! Usage: interjection used to express impatience or exasperation. Syn: ho chi.
hoann. (Anat.) back of the body. hoan
alon. (Anat.) 1.
backbone; spine; spinal column. 2.
hogyan. (Zool.) generic term for several wild cat species including Leopard, Clouded Leopard, Asiatic Golden Cat, possibly also Marbled Cat and Leopard Cat. hogya-gyamun.
(Zool.) Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) . hogya
(Zool.) Spotted Leopard (Panthera pardus) . No hogya taker mi membiine. You killed a leopard.
hogyo-holyoadj. mixed up; confused. hogyo-holyopa adv. confusely. Hogyo-holyopa la aduyo. Don't talk in a confused way!
hohoadj. spacious; as of a room; roomy. Var: ho. Ant: hunta-renta.
hoi adj. safe.
hoi vt. 1. to be. 2. to happen. 3. to affect. From: Assamese.
hojalo [´hodʑalo] conj. although; though; even though; in spite of the fact that. Gramm: concessive disjunct coordinator used to indicate something unexpected, or to contrast two informations. No rengiisiidudo, hojalo ngiimi bazar linkunpe. You must be feeling tired, still please accompany me to the market.Syn:hojalopa. Richo ngiimi school nyima ke hiila lune, hojalopa ngo akatalyi. Although Richo told me that there is no school, I will go and see.
hokan. loop trap. hoka pevt-r. to lay a loop trap. hoka peniinn. laying of a loop trap.
hoka [´hoka] 1. post. of, in
(for places). Gramm: locative case marker, genitive case. Obligatory when two locative noun phrases occur in a single sentence. Yapun hoka
jomu si ano kapyodo. Clouds in the sky are very
beautiful. Ziro mi Arunachal Pradesh hoka kapyoja
ganda ako pa kidu. Ziro
counts as one of the most beautiful places of/in Arunachal Pradesh. 2. conj. when;
if. See: daka.
hokii [´hoki] post. 1. from. Gramm: ablative postposition, indicating a spatial or temporal source of an event. Niinyi no hokii? Where
are you (two) from? Ngo lemba hopa tolyi. I come (down) from the village. Akku Yami nyi Itanagar hokii chado. Akku and Yami have come from Itanagar. Mo hin baji hokii imine. He/she slept from three o'clock. 2. out of (a whole). Gramm: partitive postposition used to refer to a selection of a part (or quantity) out of a group (or amount). Supun miilan
gyakerjalopa, ngunu Ziro kapu hokii kapama. Wherever you may travel on
there is no place like our Ziro. Ngiika ane kapu
hokii kapama. No one looks like my mother. Syn: hopa. hokiijaadv. from that time; immediately after.
hokovt. to open/dig a trench, canal or trough with the hands. Etym: from *ho, 'to collect with hands', *-ko,'to open'.
holavt. to speak in a wordy manner, without saying much; to talk a lot; to talk for the sake of talking; to twaddle.
holiivt. to put/insert something in order to burn it. Yasan mi yamu holiito. Burn some firewood into the fire!
holovt. to remove, esp. weeds; to de-weed. No aji mi hapahe, aru holobiidoku ah cho lo. You have done almost all the weeding work of paddy field.
holya yolainterj. wait! just a minute! Gramm: interjection requesting the addressee to wait or pause for a brief period or time.
homyavt. to stain something or someone by throwing something at it/him. Syn: homya-hosa.
honvt-r. to burn something in bulk, using a fire source; to burn the greater part of something. buji-buji honvi. (by fire) to crackle; to
burn with crackling sounds.
buji-buji honbiitola. There were crackling sounds in the fire.
honevt. to touch someone with one's fingertip, esp. with the intention of drawing his attention.
stoop; to bend down. Usage: Hija. Var: hunki. Syn:
honiinn. (of animals) feed. apin honiin n. serving/offering of a meal to a guest. Moka apin honiin si polehaja hodo ke. His/her party is too lavish. Pukun apin honiin. Meal served collectively to the participants of a *murun.
honiinn. de-weeding; removal of weeds.
honyoadj. small, as of a fire. Ant: horo.
horoadj. large, as of a fire. Ant: honyo.
hopa[´ho´pa] post. 1. for (purposive). Gramm: locative case marker, purposive case. Postposition marking nouns, pronouns or subordinate clauses with the basic meaning 'for', 'for the purpose of'. Inka habya si nohopa yu baliigiido nii? For where did you bring that ladder? 2. via; through; by way of. Gramm: viative/perlative postposition marking a noun, used to indicate an object or location which is passed by, or a path/way which is followed during the course of an action or event. Dumi more hopa ado. Dumi is coming through the forest. Lopa mi ubu
hopa liiboto. Put the (bamboo) stick across the hole! Lemba ato. Come by road! 3. of; out of. Gramm: partitive postposition
used to refer to a selection of a part out of a group. Acho-amyo hopa patii hii uroja hii. The tiger is the strongest animal (lit. 'strongest among animals'). Syn: hokii.
thus; so. Gramm: subordinating conjunction usually used to link a cause with an effect. Ngiikii arda ngoya ingo ako do hopa school alakenma. I have to go somewhere tomorrow, therefore I cannot go to school. Miido hudo hopa ngo ude ho du. It's raining, so I'm staying
at home (since it's raining I am staying at home). Ngo siilo doctor mi kapakendo, hopa school alakenma. I shall see the doctor today so I shall not be able to come to school. Hopa lo. That's why. hiika hopaconj. for that reason; because of that.
hopavt. to remove or take off something, such as weeds from a field.
class. bundle of threads. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for thread bundles. hore, hornye, horhinnge, horpe, horngohe,
horkhe, horkanuhe, horpinye, horkoahe, horlyanhe. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 bundles of threads.
hor vi-r. (esp. of rice when it is dried before unhusking) to become hard. Ant: horma.
hor vt-r. to look in a clumsy or ackward way.
hor See: hur.
adj. reacting readily and quickly.
hordavt. to stare at.
horen:num. one bundle of threads.Gramm: used for referring to a particular object. When enumerating, as in school, *horkun is used in place of *hore.
horjin vt. to strain, as a muscle.
Aro horjin la ngiika ali tuhii-tukhelama. I pulled a tendon so I cannot move my leg.
horkuadj. 1. (of a way of dressing or wearing something)
inappropriate. 2. (of eyes) squint; squinting; (of a person) cross-eyed; looking askance or sidelong.
horkunn:num. one bundle of threads.Gramm: when enumerating only, i.e without reference to a particular object, as in school. Otherwise, *hore is used in place of *horkun.
to look askance at someone. 2. to look obliquely at
someone or something.
hormaadj. (esp. of rice) not ripen
enough. Ant: hor.
hornaniin. bamboo frame used to make loops during the traditional process of cotton spinning, before dyes are applied to the thread .
hornepron. (of bundles of threads) how many. Gramm: interrogative pronoun used for a countable number of items in a collection.
hornyon:num. (of a bundle of threads) small. Ant: horro.
horron:num. (of a bundle of threads) large. Ant: hornyo.
horsan:qual. (of two or more bundles of threads) 1. distinct; different.2. one set for each. Gramm: post-nominal qualifying noun.
horton. yarn. tano
hoservt. to strangle with a rope.
hosu [´hosu] conj. for that reason; because of that. Syn: hopa.
hota vt. to throw something sticky at someone or something, as when throwing mud.
hoyevt. to beckon; to wave at someone to get attention.
hoyi tani vt. to carry (esp. a child) astride on the
shoulders. Usage: Bulla. Var: halyan piidin. Usage: Hija.
hoyo-hochivt. to mix.
hun. particular measure of pig fat. See: hulyi.
hupron. who. Gramm: interrogative pronoun of person. Inka hime si hu pe? Who is that child? Insi hu na khedonii? Who is crying there?
Hu na si? Who
is this? (proximate). Hu na ude ho anenii? Who is the one who came to my house? hu kokii pron. from whom. hu ya peidiom. who (polite). Gramm: idiomatic expression used as a polite way to inquire about the identity of a person. No, hu ya pe?
Who are you?
Inka atan si hu ya pe Tama ka anii? Who among them is Tama's mother?
huvi-r. to rain; (by rain) to fall. Miidu huto la ngo ude ho duto. Since it was raining, I
stayed at home.
huvt-r. to shake something.
huvi-r. to glow, as of a light; to shine. Danyi
hudo. The sun shines.
huvi-r. to be awake.
huvt-r. to collect (clothes, etc.).
huvt-r. to pound, as with a log, pestle, etc.; to crush (paddy, maize, etc.).
hu vt-r. to trim off; to make neat or tidy by clipping or lopping off, as of a stick; to hull.
hu vi-r. to simmer, as of a liquid.
huvt-r. to pierce, as with a needle.
-huvsuff. stimulate. Gramm: result suffix indicating that something is started of simulated through the action indicated by the verb.
-hu-...-havsuff. bother; hassle. Gramm: split manner suffix indicating
that, in bringing about the action denoted by the verb, the subject acts in a bothersome manner.
huavi-r. to fall
into something, such as a pit, pond, well, etc. Var: huha.
huba vt. (of a plural subject) to shake something together.
huba vt. (of a plural subject) to collect (clothes, etc.) together.
huba vt. (of a plural subject) to pound together.
n. sweat. 2. vi. to sweat. Var: hubyin. ali-ala hubinn. sweat of the hand and feet.
hubin vi. (of a plural subject) to shake something jointly.
hubin vt. to collect something together/jointly.
hubopron. who (among them/these/those). Gramm: interrogative pronoun of person. Used to inquire about the identity of a particular person in a group. Inka atan sokii hubo ya pe Tama ka anii? Who among those is Tama's mother?
hubo-hulovt. 1. to look like, esp. when depicting persons of same age. 2. (of a measure or quantity) to be roughly equivalent to.
hubun. bamboo tube receptacle
for storing cooking utensils.
hubur [hu´bur] n. (Agr.) duct inserted in the bund of a paddy field to let out the water. Encycl: can be made of plank, pine tree trunk, or bamboo
stem, of different diameters. By blocking or opening it any field can be
flooded or drained as required. Ducts are installed about 15 to 25 cm above
the bed level of the fields in order to maintain the proper water level. Var: siikho. Usage: Bulla . parkho huburn. (Agr.) pipe used in the trench of a paddy field.
hubyun. sheath of a machete or sword. takhe hubyun. skeletal cane sheath of a machete or sword.
hubyuvi. to boil, as of a liquid. Yasi hubyudo. Water is boiling.
hudaadj. bright, as of colour, sky, etc. Ant: kamo. huda kiilaadv. brightly (shining).
hukapron. whose. Gramm: interrogative pronoun of person. Genitive case. Si huka tarii? Whose shirt is this? huka agin hopron.loc. with whom. Gramm: interrogative pronoun of person. Sociative case. No huka agin ho duchi? With whom shall you sit/stay?
hukiipron. whose. Gramm: interrogative pronoun of person. Possessive case. Siika tarii si hukii? Whose is this shirt?
impulsive; impetuous; rash.
huko hopron.loc. at whose place. Gramm: interrogative pronoun of person. Locative case. No huko ho dute he? At whose place did you
stay? huko kiipron. from whose place. Gramm: interrogative pronoun of person; ablative case.
hukovt. to pierce or make a hole, as with a needle.
hukuvt. to shake.
hukhon. handle of an agricultural tool, such as a hoe, etc.
hulan. (Bot.) Air Potato (Dioscorea bulbifera), a variety of yam. Syn: hula ahi.
hula-ralaadj. extravagant. Usage: Hija.
hulin. (Med.) boil; inflamed swelling on the skin; abscess; furuncle. Syn: huli une.
hulun. variety of ceremonial Tibetan sword (*chiri).
Syn: hulu chiri. See: chiri;sha; pinji.
hulumaleadv. (esp. referring to a group of people or a crowd) in a state of tumult or chaos; in turmoil.
hulyin. (pig) fat. Hulyi mi jiloto. Melt down the pig fat!
hulyan-hudavt. (of cloth, water, grain, etc.) to put into order; to arrange. Hiika pulye mi hulyan-hudato. Arrange that cloth neatly!
hulyun. bamboo javelin, unbarbed. Encycl: in olden days bamboo javelin were used only while fighting
a battle near the villages. Young children and women brought them to fighting
men who hurl them towards the enemies.
humipron. whom. Gramm: interrogative pronoun of person. Accusative case. Siika tarii mi humi bikindo? To whom shall this
shirt be given? Humi no
kabyodo/kajido? Whom do you like?
hunvt-r. to expel/eject water from one's mouth.
hu'ngav. to stoop; to bend down. Var: honki/hunki. Usage: Hija.
huniinn. shake; shaking. myobu
huniin n. earthquake.
huniin n. pounding; grinding. Yatan huniin. Pounding of rice to make rice flour.
huniin n. collecting (of clothes, etc.)
huniin n. shining; glowing.
huniin n. simmering (of a liquid).
huniin n. piercing.
hu'ngovi. (by rain) to stop falling.
hunjuvi. to sit or be seated with one's head bent down.
hunta-rentaadj. congested, as of an area or room. Usage: Bulla.
pestle for grinding rice grain and millet. Syn: duhu hunyi.Hunyi
buye. One pestle.
hunyurn. (Bot.) variety of vegetable. Var: hunyur haman.
hupa pron. for whom. Gramm: interrogative pronoun of person. Purposive case. Siika tarii si hupa? Whose shirt is this?
hupa-huya vt. to spend lavishly, more than enough. Usage: Hija. Var: hopa-hoya. Usage: Bulla.
hupon. element of
the old body armour used in combats, consisting of tanned mithun or
buffalo hides which were fastened around the chest, offering an efficient
protection from the armpit to the groin. See: ahu;hurin; lecha.
hupur vt. to break by letting or making
something fall (e.g. an egg). Syn: apur.
hupyuv. to shake, esp. a liquid. Syn: hupyu-huser.
hurvt-r. to remove excess water from cooked rice through filtration. Var: hor. Usage: Hija.
hurinn. element of
the body armour, a large cane belt or cane matted ring designed to
protect the viscera, which was put around the waist. Usually consisted of two split long canes, around which numerous fibres from
giant ferns were wrapped round very tightly. It offered an additional
protection for the stomach and groin from injuries by blade weapons.
hurovi. to wake up.
n. wooden board used for filtering rice water during the cooking process. Syn: apin hurta. aji hurtan. (Agr.) wooden baton with a flatten end for making leeways in paddy fields in order to remove excess water.