da/-da part./vsuff. as for; however. Gramm:
contrastive particle following a noun or suffixing a verb, contrasting
the information either with some preceding statement or with some
implicit referent. No indahe. You go! (i.e. only you, not me). Ngiika oho hii, abi-tarii atan mi school indu pa riilaku lala, siisi intekuma luda. My child, after buying clothes to go to school, has now refused to go. Tiiko innaniipahe kontii bida. Give just enough money for the journey (i.e. don't give more).
da- [da:] class. foot step; pace. Gramm: classifier (root form) prefixing numerals and certain monosyllabic adjectival roots. Used for paces, i.e. steps taken as a measuring unit. daye/dahe, danye, dahinnge,
dape, da'ngohe, dakhe, dakanuhe, dapinye, dakoahe, dalyanhe.
da [da] cop. to be; to exist. Gramm: existential
verb, referent standing. Si subu da. Here is a mithun. Ant: nyima.
da [´da] vi-r. 1. to stand; to be in an upright posture. Nobin, Tamo hata hii da. Nobin stands in front of Tamo. 2. vi-r. to live; to reside. Ngiiyi hii yasi ho
live in water. Mo ngiimi noho
dadu, nii miidu, hiila
takane. He/she asked me where I am now, what I am doing and all.
da [da:] vi-r. to step; to walk; to stride across.
da See: dar.
-da [da] vsuff. 1. correctly. 2. opportunely. Gramm: manner suffix indicating that the subject carries out the action indicated by the verb in a correct or opportune manner. Opi alan landadoku. Opi can hold her head up [i.e. as a baby, she has strengthened her neck muscles enough to hold her head up]. Ant: -mur.
-da [da] adjsuff. adverbializer. Gramm: final particle attached to time nouns or time adjectives to form sequential adverbs. May suffix the negative form of the adjective.
Apin miiyo, piijoda ngunu restaurant ho diitesa. Don't
cook meal, later on we shall eat out at a restaurant.
ayumada Itanagar tone pe la hento nii, hiira tochinkiilyi po? I guess
you have been to Itanagar recently, are you going again?
daba vi. (of a plural subject) to stand together; to be standing together.
daba vi. (of a plural subject) to step/walk together. Niika subu donyeru dabasiida. Your two mithuns are walking together.
dabo vi. to step or walk along with someone.
dabo vi. to step or walk across something. dabomon vi. to step or walk across something along with someone.
Ngo niika agin ho dabomonchi. I will go across with you.
dacha vi. to step up.
dacha See: darcha.
dachan [da:tɕă] n. 1. iron. 2. (in a wider sense) metal, in general. dachan muku sudu n. metallic smoking pipe. dachan piilo [da:chă p
i´lo] n. crowbar. dachan yakho n. slim iron stick, a common tool used by Apatani blacksmiths.
dachan ho da vca. to live in the manner of. Noka Richo ayadachan ho datotiika. Try to live life the right way as
Richo! Noka mingodachan ho datotiika. Try to live as rich people do!
ima] vsuff. I am sure that; I swear that. Gramm: assurance suffix marking information as something that the speaker wishes to inform the addressee he is sure of.
A: Ngo biilyo school amato. B: No adadiima. A: I did not come to school
yesterday. B: I swear you did. No diidadiima. I swear you eat.
dado [dado] part. adverbializer.
Gramm: particle following adjectives and certain nouns, used
to form adverbs. Alun dado siitii dore harhalyi mi.
Suddenly an elephant
ran in. Mo
kolyun-kochun dado duane. He/she sat down in an imbalanced way. Sarii ngiimi hiinyan
mohi dadopa gada. The Teacher scolded me in such a way that I felt
tabu-taru dado nyimo ho powder negiitolado. Yana rubbed some powder on
her face that made her skin appear somewhat grainy. Hapoli so
miyu giije-giije dado daye. There was a huge number of people in Hapoli. Aro konchi dado jimi-jamadorampa ngo aji inchi. I shall
go to paddy fields at early morning (i.e. when the morning haze is
still low on the horizons). See: -da.
dagur vt. to
dagya vi. to
stay or stand at the wrong place.
daha vi. to step in. Yampi, so ude ho oye dahato. Yampi, step into the house! daha-daba vi. (of a plural subject) to step in together. Niika subu donyeru daha-dabasiida. Your two mithuns are stepping in together.
dahi vi. to
step aside, e.g. as to vacate a place. Var: dayi.
dahi-damo vi. to stay awhile; to stand or stay for a short period. Syn: hengii-hemo.
dahin See: dayin.
dahii-dakhe vi. (by a plural subject) to exchange position by stepping. Gambo ngiinyi dahii-dakhesiisa. Kago, let's exchange our positions!
daka [daka] post. in; at; on. Gramm:
locative case marker, marking a noun indicating its position. Typically
occurs on clauses where the marked noun and its associated
postposition are embedded into a noun phrase. Ari-apii
daka miyu atan. People in the neighbourhood. Lenba daka yapa atan hii. The village youngsters. Table daka apin diira paku mi lachunto. Hide the dirty plates on the table!
Into daka subu atan si ngiiki. Those mithuns are mine. Aki, paku daka apin mi diikhapabiine. The dog has completely finished off the rice on the plate. Siinyan ngiika aji daka emo si ensu adin do. This year, my paddy crop is of dud rice only. Syn: hoka.
dakan vi. to
stay/stand for a long time.
dako n. standing place. dako ganda n. residing place. Ziro hii ngiika dako ganda. Ziro is the place where I'm residing.
dalii vt. 1. to
drive something inside by beating it. 2. to hammer down something. Syn: dilii.
dalin n. 1. hunting track 2. stamping
ground. Syn: more dalin.
dalin vi. to walk (out); to step out of.
dalin See: darlin.
dalo See: darlo.
dalya vt. to stay or stand for a while; to wait (in a standing posture); to stand temporarily. Iche dalyato.
Please wait a moment! (addressee in a standing posture).
dalyi 1. n. direction; side. 2. post. towards; in the direction of.
directional postposition marking a noun, pronoun or adverb, with the
basic meaning 'towards'. Often, but not obligatorily followed by
locative postposition *ho. Can also indicate a temporal direction. Si dalyi boto. Come this side (by crossing a river, road, etc.)! Into
dalyi bo'nge. Go that side (by crossing a river, road, etc.)! Alye mi labi dalyi ho giboto. Move that door towards the right! Inka
lembo padin siiko ho, lachi dalyi bo'nge, lembo ka labi dalyi ho sign
board kapatodii ke. Turn left at the river junction, you will see the
signboard in the right side of the road. Ayo dalyi. Towards night time. No
labi dalyi ho
chaboto. Please move towards the right.
daminda n. variety of traditional dance accompanied by songs performed by a group of women.
damu n. (Agr.) wooden digging stick with a pointed head used as agricultural implement for planting millet or maize seeds. Syn: damu-dankho .
dan [dă] vt-r. to beat; to hit repeatedly with a stick or a tool.
danba vt. (of a plural subject) to beat together. Var: damba.
danbo vt. 1. to beat along with; to join others in beating something or someone. 2. to help someone beat something/someone.
danche vt. to break by beating.
dane cop. was/were. Gramm:
perfective copula or existential verb, referent standing. Tapu inso ho dane. Tapu was (standing) there.
dangi vi. to fall (as of a tree, pole, etc.). Inka sanii si dangilado. That tree is falling. Syn: daryi.
danii n. term used to designate the bride during the wedding ceremony (*mida). Syn: danii-mida. See: dapo. danii-dapo n. term designating the bride and the
groom during the wedding ceremony (*mida).
i] n. one who is standing (unspecified); standing person. daniibo n. the one who is standing (specified); the standing one.
danii vi. to stay or stand close to something/someone.
to cause sprain or injury by beating with a rod/stick; to kill by beating with rod or plank.
dankho n. 1. long sharpened stick (that may be used as a digging stick, e.g.). 2. thin bamboo section used as the stem of a bamboo smoking pipe. dankho panyi n. arms; ammunition.
dannii n. wooden
club used for driving pillars into the soil. Etym: from *dana-nanii, 'tool for beating'. Var: danii.
i] n. 1. one who
beats (unspecified). 2. (in a nominal, adjectival or relative clause/phrase) who beats; what beats. emo dannii n. (Agr.) paddy threshing. Var: emo
danniin. danniibo n. the
one who beats (specified).
danpi vt. to dry by beating. Var: dampi.
danso n. spear with long handle. See: adan; iidan; punyan.
danta vt. to
flatten by beating (e.g. a piece of metal during the forging process). Inka abu simi dantato! Flatten that pipe by beating it!
danta vt. to beat something or someone along with someone else. Gambo agin ho Tamo miilan mi dantato. Beat Tamo along with Gambo!
danti vt. 1. to
beat again; to repeat beating. 2. to beat repeatedly.
danti vt. to secure something by beating it, e.g. a pole into
danye [da:ńe] 1. n:num. two steps. 2. n:num. two paces. 3. adv. at a walkable distance. Lemba hokii, danye dalin la school doda do. The school is located within walking distance from the village.
danyi [´daɲi] n. 1. sun. 2. an important female figure of Apatani mythology. danyi a vcn. (by sun) to set. Danyi akumarampa akusa. Let's return back before the sun sets. danyi adu n. sunset; moment the sun disappears below the horizon. danyi agyan n. altar erected for 1) a ritual performed during *Myoko at the backyard of individual houses . 2) a ritual performed during *Dree. danyi cha vcn. (by sun) to rise. Danyi chamarampa insa. Let's go before the sun rises. Danyi chado/chalya. The sun rises. danyi chacha n. (Zool.) smaller variety of cicada, black overall with a yellow strip. See: lil lilan. danyi chadu n. sunrise; moment the sun appears above the horizon. danyi ho advphr. under the sun. Tarii mi nula
lala danyi ho apito. Dry the shirt under the sun after washing! danyi huto n. sunlight. danyi lolyan n. mid day. Danyi lohyan ho ato. Come at mid day! Syn: alo lolyan; alo liipa.
danyi parda ho advphr. at noon (when the sun is at its zenith). danyi rila n. sun ray.
danyo adj. (of a step/pace) small. Ant: daro.
danyo adj. aimless; useless. danyopa adv. aimlessly; uselessly. Ngo danyopa inpyo-insopasu, no intema ha? I'm
just going out for a stroll, won't you join? Laling danyopasii ke adu danii. Laling is speaking uselessly. Niika mobile mi tiiko bimapa danyopa ha labiinii? Did your mobile phone come free of charge?
dapo n. 1. penalty; fine levied by a collective body to a wrong doer for transgressive behaviour.
2. rule, customary law. 3. group
of male persons empowered to impose a fine and to execute the levied
fine. Usually consists of some clan representatives
(*bulyan) and some knowledgeable persons (*giitii-giira). In some
cases, to enforce their decision they can resort to the destruction of the offender's economic sources. Dapo hii kami-kaloja ho Manu kokii dapo pachatii. Finally Dapo members imposed a fine on Manu. dapo sudu/dapo sodu phr. first stage of the
pursuance of disputes and the attempts at settlement. supun dapo n.
public hearing to award penalty to a wrong doer.
dapo n. term used to designate the groom
during the wedding ceremony (*mida). See: danii. danii-dapo n. term designating the bride and the
groom during the wedding ceremony (*mida).
dapo v. to cross (by stepping or walking).
dapo-pogyan n. cattle bucrane used as a warning sign during certain rituals to ensure that visitors do not cross the threshold that it marks.
dar vt-r. to move or lift with a lever (stick, rod, etc.). Var: da.
dar [´dar] vi-r. to break down, as of a tree, pole, etc. Ngiika alo si dardo. My bone is broken.
dar vt-r. 1. to drive or lead an animal, esp. cattle 2. to move with an object (e.g. a ball) by keeping it under one's control, as in dribbling.
dar See: da.
dara adj. stiff, as of a cliff; sheer, as of a slope. Biidan dara. A steep cliff.
darcha vt-r. to move/lift something up with a lever. Var: dacha. Ant: darlo.
dare n. variety of stone crush trap.
dareke [da´r:eke] n.
bamboo shelving complex located above the main fireplace in a
house, used for smoke-drying provisions and storing various
things (boxes, kitchen utensils, firewood, etc.)
darhii-darkhe vt. to move or lift around with a lever (stick, rod, etc.). Inka ball simi lopa lo darhii-dakhehe. Go and move that ball to and from with a stick! Var: dahii-dakhe.
dari See: daryi.
darii vi. to
stand face to face.
i] adj. 1. clean; neat. 2. clear, as of water. 3. clear; evident. 4. pure/open, as of somone's heart or mind. Ant: kacho. dariija adj. cleanest. dariipa adv. cleanly; neatly; purely. Dariipa kelyato! Please write clearly! dariijapa adv. more cleanly; more
neatly; more purely. Ngunuka Ziro ganda mi supun ho dariijapa busa. Let us keep our Ziro in a cleaner condition. dariiya adj. cleaner; neater; purer. darii-pyabya [da´r i pjabja] adj.
clean. Ngunu Tanii miyu atan si ato ganda mi darii-pyabyadopa bulado koda ano ayakindo. It will
be a good thing if we Apatanis keep our own land clean.
darlin vt-r. to move something out with a lever. Ball mi lopa lo darlinto. Remove the ball with a stick! Var: dalin.
darlo vt-r. to move something down with a lever. Var: dalo. Ant: darcha.
darnyo adj. (of a funnel-shaped material used for filtering beer) big. Iche darnyodopa miito. Prepare for a small *sader of beer! Ant: darro.
daro [da:ro:] adj. big, as of a step. Ant: danyo.
darre n:num. (of a funnel-shaped material used for filtering beer) one. O darro darre miito. Prepare one big *sader of beer!
darro adj. (of a funnel-shaped material used for filtering beer) big. O darro dare miito. Prepare one big *sader of beer! Ant: darnyo.
dartu vi. to break.
daru n. summer; hot season. Daru anyan ho.
In summer. Syn: daru piilo. Ant: dorii; dorii piilo.
daru adj. difficult/unpleasant to stay or stand. Ant: dapyo.
daru adj. difficult/unpleasant to beat with a stick or a tool. Ant: dapyo.
daryi vi. to fall (as of a tree, pole, etc.). Inka sanii si daryilado. That tree is falling. Syn: dangi.
dasa vi. to stand/stay at distance; to stay away.
free; without burden (staying away from causes). Syn: henser.
dasu [´dasu] vi. 1. to
stand by oneself (without someone to support). 2. to stay by oneself (without
help from others). Var: dasii.
datna n. bottle cap. From: Hindi 'dakan'. Syn: lapin-nanii; latin-nanii.
daye [da:je] n. one pace, construed as the distance from where one foot is set down to where the other is set down. Gramm: used for referring to a particular object. When enumerating, as in school, *dakun is used in place of *daye. Var: dae; dahe.
daye [daje] cop. was/were. Gramm: perfective copula or existential verb, referent standing. Hapoli so miyu giije-giije dado daye. There was a huge number of people in Hapoli. Var: dae.
dayi v. to step down. Var: dahi.
dayi-damo vi. to stay away from something.
dayin vi. 1. (of a plural subject) to
stand or stay together. 2. (of a plural subject) to stand or stay at the same time. Var: dahin.