a [´a:] vi-r. 1. to go or come home; to visit someone's place.
siisida ude ho adukuran. I have just come home (at the instant). Tacho ado ha? Has Tacho come?
Ngo so kiiran adu. I often come here. So ato! Come here!
Aba more innii
(hokii) akumaran. Daddy has not returned from jungle yet. Niida
Itanagar apa hendo? When do you plan on coming to Itanagar? 2. to go in; to enter. Ura a'nge. Go inside! [Note: compare with
'ura ato', 'come inside!'] 3. (of a sound) to reach. Ngo luladoto nii, phone ane. I was
the phone rang.
-a [´a:] vsuff.
in; inside (home). Gramm:
directional suffix indicating that the action identified by the verb is
directed towards an inside space or towards someone's home. Syn: ha.
aba [´a:´ba:] n. father; daddy (term of address and
reference). aba-akha general term of respect for married male
adults. aba-apa(atan) [´a:´ba: ´a:´pa:] n. forefather(s); ancestor(s). Bilo anyan ho, ngunuka
aba-apa atan hii bije-siko mi ano ayabutii. In the past, our
forefathers preserved the bamboo groves very well. Si bilo aba-apa ka
nitin nii. This is a parable of our forefathers' time. aba bankun n. 1. great
grandfather (one's father's paternal grandfather). 2.
patrilineal ancestor, in general. aba-chi n.
(of a plural subject) to come together. Ngiinyi abasii. We both came together. Tallo, Tapu nyi
abasiimane. Tallo and
Tapu did not come together. Nunu hutii abasii? Who among you came
abavt. to put a load over something; to add
something on an already existing load.
abagii vt. to bring along with; to cause someone
to come along. Picnic ho ajin ako abagiilya. Bring one friend with you to the
aban [a´bã] n. 1. elder brother. 2. all male elders considered as ‘elder
brothers‘ (male speaker). Usage: can be used both in address and
in reference. Often used as a polite way for addressing a non-kin
related person of the same generation, older than the speaker. aban janphr. eldest person. Syn: akha ja.
aban 1. vt-r. to bury something in
the embers or in hot ashes, as to roast it or in order to put off a
fire. 2. n.
aber 1. n. something. Aber
kone ahiibiido. I am leaving/missing something. 2. adv. somewhere. Aber
koneda atiisiito, kapakuma. I kept that somewhere, but couldn't find it.
abi [abi] n. 1. lady skirt. 2. pants. abi hete n. strip design of some ceremonial
skirts. abi-tariin. clothes. Nunuka abi-tarii giiniin si kapyo
kapama. The clothes that
you are wearing do not look good. Ato abi-tarii mi giito. Wear your
clothes! Ngiika oho hii, abi-tarii atan mi school indupa riilaku
lala, siisi intekuma luda. My child, after buying clothes to go to
school, has now refused to go. bilan abin. variety of
three-vertical band (white, red and blue) ceremonial cotton skirt for
ladies. biser abin. variety of black and white cotton
skirt. chinyu abi n. a two-vertical band (black and white)
cotton skirt used by older people, especially during Dree celebrations. niihu
n. variety of
3-vertical band (white, red and blue) cotton skirt with strip design
called *abi hete. niiji abi n. variety of red and white cotton skirt.
adj. sufficient; complete.
adj. pleasant to come; convenient to
abivi-r. to move; to make a movement. Usage:
Hari. Var: abyu. Usage: Hija.
abi [a´bi]vt-r. to make something or someone to swing.
abivi. to come on someone's behalf/for someone.
abin adj. 1. (Agr.) bold, as of a grain or seed. Siika emo si
abindo. This rice grain is bold. Ant: asu. 2. fruitful.
abii n. (Anat.) body. abii-alo n. body structure.
abovi. to come along with someone. No ngiika agin ho bus
station ho abokindo ke. You will come with me at the bus station.
abovi. 1. to come across. 2. to move across to come.
abu [a´bu:]n. 1. pipe.
bilindo. Water is oozing from the pipe.
any cylindrical pipe-like object. malo abun. ridge pole; ridge beam. See: manpo.
abu [´abu]1. n:qual. many; a large number of; several.Gramm: qualifying noun
following another noun or a pronoun, with the overall sense 'many N'. Ngiikii
ngiiyi abu da. I have many fishes. 2. adv. much. Hiimkane loda abu bimajalo ayanedii ke.
It is not necessary to give that much to them. Abu kela la niimi henga-henkhadopa
miibitamasii ke. I will not trouble you by writing too long.
abu haja advphr. too much; too many. O abu haja tayo. Do not take too much beer! abuje [´abuje] n:qual. 1. many;
kheta abuje keto. He/she wrote many books. Apple sanii hii
ahi abuje bagiito la biku doku. That apple tree bears so many fruits
that it has become slanted. 2.
Nunu abuje po? You all are here?Punyang kokii tiiko narbiinii hii abuje barchabiidoku.
The money borrowed from Punyan has generated much interest. abuya n:qual. the greater number of; a majority of;
school amasa ka, teacher abuya hii akinma ke. Let's not come to school
today, most teachers will not come to school. abuyapa [´abujapa]adv. in
greater numbers. Atoka bije-more so abuyapa sanii alyibiisa. Let's plant more
trees in our forests.
abu-akevt. to provide nutriments/fertilizer to a plant or crop. Siika sanii simi siikenendii ke, iche abu-agato. This tree may die, so provide some nutriments to it! Usage: Bulla. Syn: abu-aga.
abu See: abur.
abur adj. unlucky; unfortunate. Var: abu. Ant: aro.
abur-aron. luck/fortune, in general (either good or bad).
abyan. ladder; staircase .Abya-byahe/byaye. One ladder/staircase. reke abyan. notched log
providing access to the ceiling .
abyan vt. to add.
abyo n. branch of a tree. See: aha-abyo.
abyo n. piece
of woven cloth covering the
head of the priest (* nyibu) during certain rituals. See: jikhe
tarii; jilan pulye.
abyuvi-r. to move; to make a movement. Usage: Bulla. Var: abi. Usage: Hija. abyu-akhelamaadj. unable to move.
abyun vt. 1. to fill a hole with soil 2. to finish binding, as of a rope. Syn: abyun-alyun. abyun-naniin. any tool
used to fill a hole with soil or to bind something tightly with a rope,
e.g. thewooden boards packed tightly and stuck
at the base of
a*babo mast by means of wooden hammers that function as chocks to
*babo firmly into the ground.
achavt. to put up; to move or raise
something to a higher place or position from a lower one; to erect.
achaniinn. erection; elevation; lifting up. Babo achaniin. Erection of a *babo
achi [´a:´tɕi:] n. term of address for any wife of one's
*ate: 1. elder brother's wife. 2. father's brother's wife. 3. father's brother's son(older)'s wife. 4. paternal grandfather's brother's wife. achi-baron.
kiths and kin. Var:
achiadv. very; very much; a lot. Gramm: emphatic adverb. Has the function of
intensifying the meaning of the verb. Tara achi loda lugado. Tara speaks a
lot. Construction labourers
atan si achi apo khennyado. Construction labourers are working very
hard. Tayo Tago mi achi
latinkiibiine ke. Tayo punched Tago very hard.
achi [´atɕ:i] adj. painful; aching.
adin so achido ha? Today do you have headache? achi-ahen. disease; ailment; sickness. achi-chigavi. to be often/always sick. Richo ano achi-chigadu. Richo always gets sick. achi-chigii vcn. to cause someone to be or feel sick. achi-chipyo adj. prone to get sick. achi-chiru adj. hardy, as of a person. doli achivcn. to be feverish.
achivi. to hide or conceal oneself.
achi takern. star. Syn: taker.
achin See: atan.
achin vi. to know
how to come.
acho n:qual. many; plenty of. Gramm: qualifying noun
following another noun with the overall sense 'many N'. Miyu acho. Many people. Yo acho dotoku la, niibo mi diichiku
henderlakuma. There were many kinds of meat, I didn't know which one to
eat. Syn: acho-acho
yalan acho-acho do. This garden is full of stones.
n. animal. Var: acho-amyo.
achu galann. (Zool.) Bee-eater, in general, including Green
Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) .
achun [atɕũ]vt. to hide or conceal something; to
secret something away. Yo mi achunto, ami diikenendii ke. Hide the meat, [otherwise] the cat may eat it!
ada n. person who has only one spouse during
his or her lifetime; person who lives along with his wife (i.e. who is
neither divorced nor a widower). ada nyibu n. priest who is married, has never
divorced, and whose wife is still alive.
adavi. to enter at a right time or
si adabiido. I have entered the
adan n. spear
made of wood with an iron edge. Variant: iidan. Usage:
adanadj. robust (strongly built or
constructed); sturdy; long-lasting; resistant. adanjaadj. strongest, most robust. adanyaadj. stronger; more robust.
adanniin n. (of building, construction)
adevi. to come near; to come close.
ade-adevi. to keep coming.
adin [a´dĩ] n. (Anat.) head Aya! adin
aha. Ah, my head is itching. adin achinphr. headache. Ngiika adin achi mi diiro diitinsiitii. I ate some medicine to stop my headache. adin akhiin. 1.
traditional comb carved out of single piece of bamboo used by men and
women in olden days. 2. brass skewer inserted horizontally in women
*dilin.adin byokhon. hair clip. adin dimun. (Anat.) hair of the head.
adinn. (Anat.) hair (in general). adin amun. (Anat.) body hair.
adinadv. only; nothing but; not something other
than. So Tanii pa adin lukasiisa! Let's speak only
in Apatani here! Nunu lembo si jebi adin doto. Your road was muddy
(lit. 'your road was nothing but mud'). Siinyan ngiika aji daka emo si ensu adin do. This year, my paddy crop is of dud rice only.Syn: kontii.
adin 1. vt. to combine; to assemble; to gather.
Sarse nyimi emo nyimi yagii ho alii adinsiito. Put the millet and the rice together in the basket! 2. vi.
gather; to come together; to assemble.
ado [a´do] n. (Bot.) petiole, the small stalk
attaching the leaf blade or fruit to the stem; stalk. Var: iido.
sanii ho ado lo age-getola da. Apples remain attached to the trees by
ado [´ado] 1. n. distance. 2. adj. far; distant (in space or time). Ziro hii Guhawati hokii ano adodo.
Ziro is very far from Guhawati. A: Sokii la adodo pe ha? B: Ma,
hiimkane adoma ke. Is it far from here? No it's not far at all.
Obing mi ka kapakumanii ano
adoduku. I haven't see Obing for ages. ado hopost. away (from). Dukan hii
lemba hokii 1 km ado ho do. The shop is located one kilometer away
from the village. Ant: kuchi.ado hokiipost. from a distance. Tana, Tari
mi ado hokii kapate la lenda sargyagiine. Tana took a different path
after seeing Tari from a distance. adojaadj. farest, most distant. adomapaadv. 1.
2. shortly. Ngo adomapa diichiku. I will go
shortly. adoyaadj. farer; farther; more distant. adoya
hoadv. farther; to a greater distance.
adun. time for coming; time to come.
adu vt-r. to haul.
adu [adu] vi-r. 1. to
make an audible sound; to make noise. Piita adudo. Birds are making noise. 2. to talk (derogatory). Hogyo-holyopa la aduyo. Don't talk in a
confused way! No pongepa adukiilyiyo. You don't talk
differently again! (i.e. as compared with the rest of the group). Hiinkane aduyo.
Don't speak that much!
adu [´adu]vr. (of thorn, stick, pebble, etc.) to
prick (as one steps on it).
liipyo ho tiire adubiine. A thorn pricked my sole (as I stepped on it).
adun-arunadj. sluggish, as after sleeping or
aduniin n. noise; cry; call. Aro konchi ho piita
aduniin. Early morning bird cry.
1. adj. quick; fast; speedy. 2. adv. quickly; immediately. Aga innge. Go quickly!Aga arniito. Swallow quicky! agaja adj. quickest. agayaadj. quicker.
agavi. to come often.
age n. 1. bamboo
quiver for holding arrows. Syn: apii age. Var: apu age. 2. ritual
element of sacrificial altars imitating a quiver .
1. vt-r. to adhere to something, as of glue; to
stick. Konchi mi payu agebiido. A dragonfly got sticked by glue. (lit. 'the glue has sticked a dragonfly'). 2. adj. sticky. Syn: ge; age-ge.
age [´age]vt. (Agr.) to drain out water from
paddy field. Siikho
daka yasi mi ageto. Drain the water out from the field channel! Aji yasi agetasa. Let's go and drain off the field.
ager [a´gər] n. (Agr.)bund separating paddy fields; dyke.
Var: agar. ager garvcn. to construct a bund in a paddy field. ager sopin. (Agr.) dike, short in height. Syn: ager-garlo.
agin-aye mii vcn. (esp. of children) to make trouble;
to be a pain; to make a fuss. Hiinkane agin-aye miiyo. Don't make so much fuss!
agin hopost. with; alongwith. Gramm:
accompaniment postposition to a noun or noun phrase. Tara ngiika agin ho
dukindo. Tara shall stay with me. No
Taki agin ho
Ziro ho tohe. Go down to Ziro with Taki! Syn: agin pa. Moka agin pa chaboto!
Come (up) along with him/her!
agii [agi] vt-r. to dress; to put on cloth; to put a cloth on someone. Opi mi tarii agiito. Put a shirt on Opi.
take someone along with oneself; to go/come along with someone. Ngunumi Energy Park ho
agii pe! Take us to Energy Park! Bilo tiipe giima nyimii yugyan ho
agiimatii. In olden days women or girls who did not wear a tatoo did not
join others to the clan altar. No
Sunka mi agiito. Come
along with Sunka!
ago n. outside; exterior. Ant:
empun [ago`empun] n. portion of space stretching from the
entrance door to the hearth. Ant: ura enpun. ago ho
1. post. outside. Ude ago ho habundo. It is cool outside the house. 2. adv. outside; outwards. Mo ago ho linne. He
went outside. Ant: ura
ho. ago nyibun. priest who assists the main priest (*ura nyibu) during the performance of a *murun. ago ugun. primary hearth located near the
entrance of a traditional house. Ant: ura ugu. yapun ago hokiiadvphr. from the sky.
ago n. coming, or visit,
which is due or yet to occur.
agovt. to come before someone else does. Ngo momi agoyato. I
came before him/her. Tamo, Pussang mi apyokiinento. No agoyo. Tamo, let
Pussang come first. Don't come before him! ago-aloa
to compete to reach or
ago-alo akasiisa. Let us see who
comes earlier [between you and me].
nyi ago-alo akasiito la Omo agobiine. Ropo and Omo competed to see who
came earlier, and Omo arrived before Ropo.
agojapa avi to come earliest. Tamo
agojapa ane. Tamo came earliest.
agobiila avi. to come in turn; to come one after the
ato! Come in turn!
agun [a´gũ] n. 1. mouth. 2. language. No Tanii agun
chindu ha? Can you speak Apatani? 3.
entrance (of a hole, e. g.). Kubu agun
ako do. Here is an entrance of
rat [hole]. agun
gonchaadj. mute. Syn: piicha
agyan. entrance. Ngunuka lembo agya si
ano kachodo. The entrance of our road is very dirty.Car hii market agya si domoto la do.
The car is parked just in front of the entrance of the market. Var: hagya. Syn :
vt. to place one's hands side by side with
palms facing upwards, as when receiving something. Ala
lapyo ho agyato. Take in your handpalms!
take/collect (esp. rice) by some ustensil or from a receptacle. Syn: gya.
agya vi. to come the wrong way; to come to a wrong place.
agyan [agjã] n. altar; ritual structure made of bamboo
and leaves. aji agyann. altar erected in paddy field during
*myoko . danyi agyann. altar erected at the backyard of the
house during *myoko . agyan miiniin n. construction of an altar.
agyan-ayen. excuse. agyan-aye
to make excuses.
agyo [a´gjo] vt. to combine; to put together; to
add something or someone.
agyu [a´gju:] Seeaha.
ah [´aʔ] excl. eh.
Gramm: tag marker occuring at the end of a sentence, used to get
agreement from the addressee or check information by turning it into a
miisa ah. Let's do it like this,
aha [´aha] n. 1. heart. 2. mind; thought;
Tanii miilanru aha puye pa giila. We all Taniis shall have a same
buko simi, ngatiihajaku la diitiilakuma ka aha oh. (I think/feel that)
this large wild rat is too tasty/oily to be finished. Opi ka nyimo si
aba mi ano giido ka aha. (I think/feel
resembles that of her father. aha abann. (Med.) acidity. aha ahiivcn.
to forget or miss
something; to forget to do something. Syn: ahii.
armyan mi aha-ahiibiido. I forgot his name. Ngunuka agun
mi aha-ahiibiinyado. We are forgetting our language. aha bavcn. to mind; to take umbrage. aha
hostility; animosity; ill-will; enmity. aha
feeling nausea. aha duniinn. beat, of a heart. aha hemperadjphr. heartbreaking; heart-rendering. aha kamoadjphr. feeling down; depressed; morose; despirited. aha
having a gentle
disposition; kindly; caring. aha lyilyiadjphr. horrified. Road
accident daka siima mi kapate la aha lyilyi biiso hempa. I was
when I saw the corpse on the spot of the road accident. Syn:
piimoadjphr. coward. aha piiron. bamboo basket where the severed hearts
of slaughtered pigs at *Myoko are placed. aha puhenphr. one
aha puye. aha
puhe pa advphr. as one; together;
united (lit. 'as one heart').Var: aha puye pa. Ngunu
Tanii miilanru aha puye pa giila. We all Apatanis shall have a same
(literally 'heavy heart').
ahan. 1. handle of a cane-made basket. 2. shoulder strap of a sword sheath.
aha [a´ha:] vt-r.
to dry something above or over a fire; to smoke-dry. Syn: ha. Reke ho yasan ahachato. Dry the firewood [by putting it] on the ceiling floor!
aha [a´haʔ] vt.
to hook; to hang from a hook. Syn: hage. Ngiika tarii mi
inka lochi so ahato. Hang my shirt on that wall hanger.
aha [a´ha] 1. n. itch. 2. vi. to be itching. Ngiika
ala si ahado. My hand is itching. Aya! adin aha. Ah! My head is itching.
aha-akhaadj. difficult/unpleasant to come. Nunu
lembo si jebi adin doto la ano aha-akhado. There was only one muddy
leading to your village, [so] it was very difficult to come.
ahe [ahe:]vr. to bet; to wadger with someone. Spain, World Cup tuminkendo la ngiika agin ho ahetayi ha no? Will you make a bet with me that Spain is going to win the World Cup?
n. (Anat.)tooth; teeth. ahi biilii nphr. loose tooth. ahi-hipin n. feline lower jaw, with special reference to the ornament
attached to the strap of ceremonial sword sheaths. ahi tachan pibiidoexp. have dental caries (literally "worms have eaten the tooth").
mean; miser; narrow-minded; egoistic. See: chahi.ahi-abii mii vcn. to be reluctant to do something out of meanness. Kago ka mihi donation bilinsiiniin mi ano ahi-abii miido. Kago's wife is very reluctant to make a donation (out of meanness).
[´a-i] n. fruit.
ahi mi bachin hiila
ludu. Si more ho ahi du.
We call this fruit 'bachi', it grows in the wild. ahi hilin vi. to fructify; to become fruitful.
ahinadj. same; similar; identical; equal. Var: ain; ayin. Molu ainsiitii. They were similar. Syn: halyan. ahin-ahinadv. similarly; equally.Var: ain-ain; ayin-ayin. Yo ayin-ayin
bito. Distribute meat equally (among guests)!
ahin aha nphr. resentment (literally "heavy
heart"). ahin-aha bavcn. to have resentment towards someone. India nyi Pakistan nyi ahin-aha basumadu koda ayakendo. It would be good if India and Pakistan didn't have tensions and resentments towards each other. ahin-aha baniinphr. 1. enemy; foe. 2. (in a nominal or relatived clause/phrase) resentful.
ahin paminn. variety of necklace worn by women.
ahii vt. to go beyond a certain limit; to
cross a limit (in space). Ngo Unka ka ude mi ahiibiidoku. I have gone beyond Unka's house.
ahii [a´hi] vt. to forget; to leave. Ude ho aber kone
ahiibiido. I forgot/left something in the house. Ngo diigo diissaniin mi ahiitoku. I have forgotten to eat the meal/I have forgotten the food. Syn: aha-ahii.
ahu [a´hu:] n. 1. son-in-law (equivalent to *mabo, but
used in direct addressing in place of it to express affection). 2. kin term of address applied to all
people considered as classificatory sons-in-law, such as father's
brother's son's daughter. See: mabo.
ahu [a´hu:] n. typical
body ornament worn byApatani males in olden days, consisting of strands
of cane strips dyed in red, loosely fastened together and bent into a
loop, thus resembling a 'tail'. This 'tail was set on a loin belt
(*yari) that was fastened around the waist. Nowadays *ahu and *yari are
only occasionally worn by perfomers during certain important
along with the cane belt (*ahu) which altogether hide the body private
parts of grown-up males.
ahu [´a´hu:]vt-r. to awake someone. Opi mi imi ahutoku. Wake up Opi from sleep! Anya, konda konchi ho ngiimi ahu yape aha. Anya, tomorrow wake me up early morning.
ajavi. to finish/complete coming. Hime atan class ho
ajadoku ha? Have all the children come into the class? (i.e. all
those who had to come have come and no one is left).
ajan [a´dʑã] adj. young; (of plants) new or immature;
tender. ajan bulyann. men who assist the older *bulyan in
their work by tasks such
as carrying messages. Syn:
miha. See: bulyan.
ajern:qual. bit; little; little bit (of). Gramm:
qualifying noun following another noun and giving the basic sense 'a
bit of N'. ajerhen. a little amount/part/bit. Ajerhe bipe. Give me a little bit please!
ajervi. 1. (of a
child or an animal) to stretch, as after a sleep. 2.
(of an animal) to move the body to draw attention, as a dog when
wagging its tail. ajer-aberadv.
1. little by little. 2.
in a lingering way, so as to get attention.
aji [adʑi]n. paddy
field. Aji garre,
garnye, garhinhe. One, two, three paddy field(s). aji agern. bund of a
paddy field. aji agyan
altar erected in individual paddy field having six pieces of of *khomu and one
*khonju . aji agyan riniin n. agrarian ritual performed by the various
households in their paddy-fields during *Myoko festival, marked by the
erection of one *aji agyan in the centre of one field. aji amun. quantity of rice grain in the field;
crop.aji bogyan. entry point of a paddy field. aji
hutan. long wooden bat used for making
leeways in wet paddy fields for diverting out excess water. Var: aji
hiita. aji indu n. time for going to fields (usually
8:30-9:30 am). Ant: aji ine adoku/aduku. aji ehaniinn. offering of food
deposited on paddy field altar.aji ine avcn. to return from (paddy) fields. Molu ine adoku. They have returned from fields. aji lendan.
agricultural labour team comprised of people having their fields in the
same area, whose main duty is to look after the construction and
maintenance of foot-paths. Managed by a male or female called *lenda kagenee. aji-lyapyo [adʑi lja´pjo:] n. fields, in general.Aji-lyapyo si salyi
riiji. These fields are verdant. aji mii [adʑi´mi] vcn.
to work in paddy fields. Siika atan aji miidu.
Aba, ama nyi aji miidu. Daddy and mummy cultivate the
fields. aji padii haman n. (Bot.) Cardamine hirsuta, a
vegetable species . aji pain. (Zool.)White Wagtail (Motacilla alba), a small
passerine bird commonly seen in paddy fields . aji patann. agricultural labour team. Encycl: in
olden days, boys and girls who became the members of one and the same
*patan continued to support one another during all their life. aji
piiha [adʑi pi´ha] n. basket made of bamboo splits used for
carrying vegetables. aji sampyan. (Agr.)rectangular
sledge-like wooden tray used to transport mud in paddy fields . aji tatiin. (Zool.)variety of frog commonly found in paddy fields. piitan
ajin. paddy field as it is when left to dry
up after harvest.
ajin [a´dʑĩ] n. friend; pal. ajin apiin. circle of friends. ajin arann. bosom friend. ajin atann. friends.
gyoniin n. formal
invitation by the owner of a
house, on the fifth day of
Myoko, of his *buniin/*dingyan ajin, who are presented with ceremonial
meat, beer, salt and *tapyo salt. Var: ajin gyonii.
buniin ajin n. variety of ceremonial friend; person with whom
formalized personal friendship is established, which is also a
hereditary relationship. Encycl: a
man chooses such friends from clans with which he does not have any
affinal relations and normally from villages of another *Myoko group.
The relationship begins with a ceremonial exchange of gifts and
involves further gifts on the occasion of rites and festivals. Var:
bunii ajin. gyatu ajinn. variety of ceremonial friend. Encycl:
*gyatu friendship is usually concluded between Apatanis and Nyishis. It
involves the exchange of mithun and valuables, thus resembling the
ceremonial friendship pacts of Nyishis' political and social
system. Traditionally this form of alliance was linked with the
mithun rearing system, in which many owners used to give their mithuns
to the care of neighbouring Nyishi or Miri friends. khiibo ajin n. variety of ceremonial friend. khiibo ajin shedophr. formal
invitation, by someone who participates fully to Myoko by
sacrificing a pig, of his ceremonial friends who belong to the same
*aso as him (*khiibo ajin). See: aso. patan ajin n. common term used to refer to a member of
one's own *patan group. piinyan ajinn. variety of ceremonial friend to
whom is offered the head of animals sacrificied on certain occasions,
especially *murun and *subu tado. Syn: punyan ajin; subu piinyan;
subu punyan. Encycl: every Apatani male can
have several *punyan ajin who may be of the same or of another
village. As a rule, the relationship is transmitted from father to
eldest son. It formally establishes bonds of mutual
obligations, also a pseudo-kinship in the sense that the children of two
*punyan ajin cannot intermarry.
ajinbo [a´dʑĩbo]n. friend (term of address).
ajon. fare, as a transport fare; wages.
ajon. cost of benefit for coming. Dokun
ho ajo nyikinma ke amin lo ka. There's no use coming to the meeting.
ajoadj. careful and slow;
cautious. ajopaadv. cautioulsy; carefully and slowly;
n. appearance, of a person; look;
manner. Syn: aju-amyo. Aju-amyo mi niimpa kadu? Henju-hemyo mi
no katotiika. Why are you looking at somebody's features? Look at the
ajuinterj. ok. Gramm:
interjection indicating agreement or positive comprehension of the
aka vi. to try
to come; to come as a test or trial. Tamo ngiika ude ho akama. Tamo never
comes to my house. A: Ude ho mi akamasune ha? B: Ma. Mi kone tere
akamane. A: Did someone come to my house? B: No one came. So oye akato!
Come over here once! Inka
dukan ho akasa. Let's enter into that shop (or Let's go and see that
So oye akato. Come over here once.
akan [´a´kã] 1. n.
low/lower level. 2. adj. low; lower. 3. adv.
toto. Come down! Akan to'nge. Go down! (downstair; downslope; downhill,
etc.). Ant: ayo. akan dalyipost.
downward. Richo adan mi akan dalyi ho chilibiine. Richo threw his spear downward. akan hopost.
down; downstair; downslope, downhill, etc.akanjaadj. lowest. akanyaadj. lower.
akanvi. to come late.
ake n. food.
aki [´aki] n. dog.Aki-kiye. One dog. aki amu n. dog hair. aki asi [aki
asi:] n. kennel.Var: aki ashi. aki dula n. rope used to tie dogs. aki durgu n. dog wooden trough . aki ipa n. dog excreta. aki jilyun n. (Bot.) Mock Strawberry (Potentilla
indica). Var: aki jilyin. aki-kibon. male dog. aki-kichun. puppy. aki-kinii n. bitch. aki-kinyon. small dog. aki-kipon.
pup. aki-kiron. big dog. aki-paron.
domestic animals, in
general. aki piiron. loosely woven basket for carrying dogs.
aki tadern. (Zool.)
tapeworm of dogs. aki
flea. Var: aki
akin vt. to show how to
oye akinto! Show him/her once how to come!
akii See: arkii.
n. entrance; any place for coming or
entering, esp. related to the house.
ako 1. n. underside;
lower side. 2. n. lowest part; bottom. Syn: iko. 3. adj. low (opp. high). Danyi ne akodoku? How
low is the sun in the sky? (as a traditional way of asking about time).ako ho post. below. See: akan.
ako [ako] n:num. one. ako-abi pron. everyone; everybody. Gramm: distributive pronoun of
person. Gives the basic
meaning 'everybody' referring to a group of people. Yadi moka
herunii mi ako abi agin ho lujolada. Yadi is expressing her
emotions verbally in front of everyone. See: kone abi. ako-akopron. 1. one
by one; one after the other. 2. one or the other. Pen jalo pencil,
ako-ako labiihe. Take either a pen or a pencil. ako heter pron. even one. Gramm:
distributive pronoun of
person. When used in a negative sentences, gives the sense 'no-one',
'neither'. ako kontii pron.loc. only one. ako tapron.loc. one more. Ako
ta ado. One more has come. ako tarepron. any (of); either. Gramm: distributive pronoun. Gives
the basic sense 'any of' or 'either' referring to a group of people. Var: ako tere. Usage:
Hari. Var: ako ter. Usage: Bulla. Var: ako
tiire. Usage: Hong. miyu akon. one
person; someone. Ngo miyu ako kalyalado. I'm
waiting for someone.
n. 1. mother's brother (term of address and
reference). 2. father's
sister's husband. 3. mother's
sister's husband. 4. mother's
maternal uncle. 5. general term to address all males belonging to the mother's
brother clan. 6. term used for all men of the speaker's father's generation whom he/she wishes to respectfully
n. mother's brother's son (term of
akuvi. to come from/through a wrong
akunvi. (by a plural subject) to come as a
group; to get together; to
gather; to cluster.
akunvi. to come early.
akuniin. return. Ii'nga anii ka akunii mi kalyaladu. The
kid is waiting for her mother's return. Var: akuniin.
akur vi. to return; to come back to where one
1. n. old man;
elder.Inka akha mi o ture bito.
Give a mug of beer to that old man! 2.
adj. elder/old. akha
men among the *bulyan. See: bulyan. akha miyu n. elder; elderly person. akha janphr. eldest person. Syn: aban ja.
adj. shallow, as of river, lake, etc. Syn:
feel a sensation of heat or irritation, as if burning. Ngiika alyo
si akha-ayado. My skin is burning.
akhe [a´xeʔ] n. (Anat.) kidney.
(Anat.) belly; stomach; guts; bowels. Syn:
akhii ere. akhii
alon. (Anat.) rib. akhii
harvcn. to have diarrhoea or loose
akhii hardo hiila ludo. He/she said he/she has
loose motion. akhii
diarrhoea; loose motion. Syn: akhii saniin. akhii savcn. to suffer from diarrhoea or loose
akhiin-amii adj. 1. (of objects) mixed up.
2.(of a person or a person's thoughts)
confused. 3.(of a person) careless.
akho [´a´xo] n. (Bot.) stem, as of small plants; stalk. See:enkho;
akho [a´xo] 1. n. head; leader. 2. adj. (of a group of person) eminent,
prominent. Nyibo akho. Eminent guest/chief guest.
[a´xo´dʑa] adj. most prominent; chief; leading; head.
akho [a´xo] adj. (esp.
n. (Bot.) Creeping
Woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata). Usage: Dutta. Syn: o
haman; khuyi haman.
akho tado tasan n. variety of necklace worn by women,
made of small roundish yellow beads . See: aper tado tasan.
akhun.(Anat.) 1. egg shell. 2. exoskeleton of invertebrates. Var: pakhu.
akhu See: arkhu.
[a´la:] n. 1. hand. 2. (of animals) forelimb. Ala buye. One hand. ala chinyoadj. inclined to steal; kleptomaniac. ala la vcn. to shake someone's hand. Niika
ala mi laniinbo hu pe? Who was that man who shook your hand?
ala lalin vcn. 1.
to take out one's hand. 2. (in a
sense) to slap someone. Tari ka pale hii
mi ala lalinkiinebiine. Tari's disobedience made his father to slap
(lit. 'to take out his hand'). ala-laniin n. handshake. ala-lapun.
(Anat.) fist. Syn: lapu.ala-lapyo n. (Anat.) palm of the hand. ala lyenngen:num. one fathom, construed as the distance
between the fingertips of both hands when the arms are raised
horizontally on the sides. Usage: Hari, Bulla. Var: ala
lyinnge.Usage: Hija. ala lyennge khupohen:num. distance from the shoulder to the
fingers of the opposite hand, used as a traditional unit of linear
measure. Usage: Hari, Bulla. Var: ala lyinnge khupoye.Usage: Hija. ala tuyen:num.
arm span, construed as the distance from the
shoulder to the tip of the middle finger. Var: ala tuhe.
alann. 1. (Anat.) neck. 2. hump, as on an ox. 3. neck, as of a bottle or pot. Opi alan landadoku. Opi can hold her head up [i.e. she, as a baby, has strengthened her neck muscles enough to hold her head up]. Piichan alan. Narrower part of a pot.
alen. 1. (of birds) wing. 2. (of fishes) fin.
aleadv. once; some time back.
aler [alər] adj. 1. (of humans and animals) strong; powerful. Alyi atan
ka nyago hii ano alerdo. Molu kiidi mi buldozzer hiilyan
Pigs have very powerful snouts. They can turn over the
bulldozers. 2. hard, as of materials; firm, as overcooked meat. Sii alyo byakhannii ano arledo.
Overburn skin of cow is hard to eat/chew. Ant: biiya. 3. courageous (brave/daring/bold). See:
chikho; tamo. alerjaadj. hardest. aleryaadj. harder. aler diirin.
n. (Bot.) seed (of any plant which is sown by
humans); seedling. See:
komo. 2. n. (in a figurative sense) offspring;
descendants. Ngunuka ali atan si noho pe innyalyi
nii? Where have our descendants gone? ali-ahon.
seedlings. No nii
ali-aho asodu? What crops do you grow?
ali[´ali] n. 1. (Anat.) leg; foot; leg and foot. Ate, no ngiika ali mi chajebiido. Brother, you are
stepping on my foot! 2. wheel. Paji ali. Wheel
of a vehicle. ali-arann. base of the leg and foot. ali aran
down; on the ground.ali buye nphr. one leg.ali chakur n. footmark; foot print. Syn: chakur.
ali-ingii vcn. to cause something or someone to follow. ali innii-nanii n. bamboo stilts, used by children for
walking at a greater-than-usual height. ali
bow-legged. ali paganphr.
1. with one's legs wide apart. 2.
astraddle; astride. ali
tarinn. traditional leg ornament, a plaited ring knitted from *taser yaso cane which
used to be worn by adult
males and children below
the knee. Today only worn
by *nyibus during certain important occasions such as *Murun, *Myoko, or *Subu tado. Syn: tarin. liichi ali n. left leg. liibi ali n. right
ali [ali:] vt-r. to bury something. Siima mi alibiidoku ka ah. The
corpse has been buried (lit. 'one has buried the corpse').
ali [´ali:]vt-r. to
plant in soil. Yorlu ho tanyi alisa. Let's plant maize in the garden. Syn: lii.
ali lenda See:
1. n. ball;
round object. 2. vt. to make
something round with palm (clay, etc.) 3. vt. to wind a quantity of yarn or thread
into a ball, esp. by using a
kind of spinning wheel known as *piiriie.
(esp. of cattle) behaving
alii [ali:] n. 1. relationship to the mother's brother, that is manifested through regular gifts. 2. particular sacrificial share of the pig slaughtered at *Myoko consisting of the upper part of the foreleg . 3. the person entitled to be the recipient of an *alii. See: liyo-pani.
alii [a´li] vt. to
insert; to put in. Sarse
nyimi emo nyimi yagii ho alii adinsiito. Put the millet and the rice
together in the basket! Aliitotiika luhankele. I told you to put it in!
alii-aha [ali ´a´ha]vt.
to exchange; to
swap. Ngiinyi ka tarii mi alii-ahasiisa. Let's exchange our shirts! Syn: lii.
n. salt. alo sudu [alo sudu] n. salt container kept inside the house.
n. 1. (Anat.) bone; skeleton, esp. endoskeleton; skeletal framework. Ngiiyi alo. Fishbone.2. in a metaphorical sense, frame of an architectural structure, or element of such a frame. alo khun. old property inherited from
forefathers, which was never purchased nor sold. lojo alon. element of the supporting frame of a house open platform (*simbya); joists made of bamboo poles supporting the house open platform that are set in rows perpendicular to the outer wall . lopii alon. transverse supporting frame of a house open platform (*simbya) made of aligned bamboo poles. Etym: from *alo, 'frame'; apii/kopii, 'transverse'. . loso alon. element of the supporting frame of a house open platform (*simbya); joists made of bamboo poles supporting the house open platform that are set in rows parallel to the outer wall. Etym: from *alo, 'frame'; aso, 'length/longitudinal'. . simbya alon. joist supporting a house open platform (*simbya).
alo [´a´lo] n. day. Ngo Ziro ho alo lohinhe dute/date. I
spent three days in Ziro. alo-alon:time. everyday. alo liipan:time noon; midday. Syn:
alo-lolyan, danyi lolyan. alo lovcn. 1. (of a day) to dawn. Alo lodo. The day is dawning. 2. to go through (time). Northeast daka terrorist problems si ayamanii
alo logiilado. Terrorist problems of Northeast are going through bad days.alo lohe [´a´lo´lo´he]
n:num. one day. Var: alo-loye. alo-lolyann:time. mid day. Syn: danyi lolyan; alo
alo [alo:] vt-r. to sundry; to dry something under the
sun. Emo mi danyi ho aya kiilin aloto. Put the paddy under the sun so as to dry it properly! Tarii mi nula
lala aloto. Dry the shirt under the sun after washing!
alo [´alo:]vt-r. to drop. Hiika ahi mi aloto. Drop that fruit!Aloto, ngo latutoso. Drop it! I'll catch it. Syn: tiilo.
n. drying by sun. Diilo aloniin. Drying
of rice grain in sunlight. Emo/sarse aloniin. Drying of
or task to be done. alu-alevt. to be
busy at; to be occupied in doing something. Nii
alu-aledo? What are you busy at? Apa ano alu-ale la da. These days Apa is very busy.
alun adj. 1. shocked. Iinga
alungiine. The baby was shocked. 2.
sudden. alunpa adv. suddenly. alun dado adv. suddenly. Alun dado siitii dore
harhalyi mi. Suddenly an elephant
ran in. alun-lungii vcn. to cause someone to be or feel shocked.
alyavt-r. to lick. Aki si
ngiika ala mi alyado. The dog is licking my hand.
alyan [a´ljã] n:num. ten. alyan hela ako [a´ljã le ko] n:num. eleven. Syn: alyan le kun.
alyan hela anyenum. twelve. Syn: alyan hela
alyan le nye, alyan le nyi. alyan hela hinhen:num. thirteen. Syn: alyan le hin.
alyan hela piilyenum. fourteen.
Syn: alyan le pe, alyan le pi. alyan hela ya'ngon:num. fifteen. Syn: alyan le ngo.
alyan hela khiiye n:num. sixteen. Syn: alyan le khe,
alyan le khii. alyan hela kanuhen:num. seventeen. Syn: alyan le
alyan hela pinyen:num. eighteen. Syn: alyan hela
alyan le pinye, alyan le pinyi. alyan hela koan:num. nineteen. Syn: alyan
le kowa. alyan piilye n:num. fourty. alyan yangon:num. fifty. alyan khiiyen:num. sixty.
alye [´a´lje:] n. door. Alye-lyehe. One door.
1. vi-r. to quaver; to shiver; to tremble, as in
fear or cold. Syn: pinjer.
2. adj. quavering, as of a voice; shivering;
alye-ache adv. (esp. of a person) nervous and
trembling; shaking. Mo alye-ache da.
alyi [a`lji:] n. pig. Alyi-lyiye.One pig. alyi amun. pig hair. alyi atun. piglet. alyi durgu n. pig wooden trough. alyi ikhan. pig excreta (used as organic
fertiliser in paddy fields). alyi-lyidon. food
or eatables for pigs. Syn: lyido.alyi-lyikun. bacon. Syn: lyiku. alyi-lyilan. pig forelimb. alyi-lyiniin. sow (female pig). Alyi-lyinii
atu kone. One small female pig. alyi-lyinyon. small pig (i.e.small in size). alyi-lyipon. male pig. alyi miigen. trough cleaner. Syn: miiche.
alyi piiron. basket
made up of splitted bamboo to carry pigs. alyi-lyiro n. big pig. alyi giirin. pigsty; boarded-up enclosures located
below the pile-borne houses where pigs are kept. Encycl: pigs are
not left to roam freely in Apatani villages. alyi yon.
alyin. wind; air. Sarpu daka alyi supa hankele sarpu si sapidoku. The balloon got flattened as air was removed from it. alyi aron.
strong wind; windstorm.
n. bow . alyi-lyikhon. bow without its string used in the
Myoko ritual only.
alyin adj. smart; vigourous; lively; active;
alert. Syn: alyin-atu. Mo alyin-atusiido pe
ha? Is he active?
alyo [´aljo] 1.
n. (Anat.) skin, hide; bark, as of
a tree. 2.
vi. to be skinny. alyo dipa vcn.
to peel the skin of something (e.g. a fruit).
alyo [´a´ljo]n. (Anat.) tongue.
alyo See: alyu.
alyo konson. (Zool.) praying mantis, a predadoty
insect having powerful grasping forelimbs. Var: alyo gonso .
alyu vt. to lose; to get something lost. Ngo ngiika kheta mi
alyusiito. I lost my book. Ngunu Tanii ka miiju-miimyo mi
alyumasa. Let's not give up our Tanii traditional
and cultural activities. Kiije, ato ka agun mi alyumasa. Come on,
let's not forget our own language! Var: alyo.
ama [ama] n. mother. Usage: Hari,
Tajang. Syn: ane. Note: *ane, not *ama,
invariably stands for 'mother' in the oral literature.
amaniihe pron. anything; everything. Var: amanehe.
hime simi amanehe mi bikasiitii, ngo myalakuma. I have given everythig
to this child, but couldn't console him. Syn: kapaniihe.
amevt-r. (by animals) to mate; to copulate. Aki amesiido. The dogs are mating.
n. remnant part or portion; remnants;leftovers. Mo
ame-aja miilan mi diijabiine. He/she has eaten up till the last morsel. Var: ame-aje.
Ame-aje heter apin nyikuma ha? Isn't there [even] a little bit of rice
n. cat. ami-mipon. tomcat. ami-miniin. she-cat. ami-atun. kitten.
ami [´a´mi:] n. 1. (real) elder sister (female speaking).
2. classificatory elder sister (female
speaking). ami-abann. elders; seniors, in general.
ami [´ami] n. tail, of any animal (including
fishes). ami tovcn. to lag
behind. No aji miiko ho ami
todo ka. You are lagging behind in the cultivation
ami [a´mi:] n.
(Anat.) eye. Ami puye. One eye. ami-agun
n.literally 'eye-mouth', a
typical Apatani weaving designconsisting of small diamonds and
dots in red, black and dark orange .ami ajanadjphr. easily inclined to shed tears. Mo ami ajan. He/she
sheds tears easily. ami
horlyi vcn. 1. to
look sideways; to have a
squint.ami horpun. (Anat.)
white part of the
eye (as opposed to iris and pupil). ami-mibun. (Anat.) eyebrow. ami-mibyon. eyelash. Syn: mibyo-amu.
ami-micha 1. n. blind person.2. adj. blind.
teardrop. ami-mirin. (Anat.) line of
the eyelid. ami nuri n. (Anat.) iris of
the eye (including pupil). ami puye gii vcn. to be
one eyed. ami
tiipinn. (Bot.) Zebra grass (Miscanthus sinensis
'Zebrinus'). ami talu
ami vt. to put off a fire. Ugu daka yamu mi yasi amito, yamu-yacha kiinendii ke. Put some water over the hearth, [otherwise} it may start again.
aminadj. (esp. of
animal) docile; not ferocious. amin-ajanadj.
amin vi. (of food) to be or becomecooked.
amindoku. The vegetables are
cooked. Ant: ayi.
aminvi. to come around aimlessly; to pay a
casual visit to someone.
amin-ahi [a´min´ahi]n. 1. gift; present. 2. toy; plaything. amin-ahi kheniinn. distribution of gifts/prizes.
amii [´ami]n. term
of address for 1. daughter-in-law.
2. brother's son's wife. 3. sister's son's wife. 4. father's brother's son's wife, younger
than the speaker. 5. father's
sister's son's wife, younger than the speaker. Var: amu. Syn: nyahii.
amloken. (Bot.) Wild Himalayan Amla
(Emblica officinalis), a fruit tree species. From: Assamese.
am sanii n. (Bot.) mango tree. From: Hindi 'aam'.
amu adj. false;
erroneous; lying. amupaadv. falsely. amupa luvca. to lie; to tell lies.
amun. quantity of grain; crop (as quantity).
n. 1. (of humans) body hair. 2. (of animals) fur. amu perun [´a´mu pe´rũ]
n. (Bot.) variety
of soya bearing white grains in a hairy pod, not eaten by humans. Syn:
come by mistake.
n. (Anat.) penis.
an [´ã]part. is it?Gramm: tag marker occuring at
the end of a sentence, used by the speaker to elicit a reply from the addressee. When occuring in an interro-negative
sentence preceded by assertive particle *ke, indicates that the speaker
is expecting an affirmative reply from the addressee. Nanya niinyi ajin sii
nyan an? Are you and Nanya friends? Mo anyi iche heter
giisuma ke an? They don't resemble at
all, do they? Mo moka aba mi iche heter
giima ke an? He/she doesn't resemble to his/her father at all, does he/she?
anarn. (Bot.) pomegranate (Punica
granatum). From: Hindi
anarasn. (Bot.) pineapple. From: Hindi
ane [´a:ne] n. mummy; mother. Usage: most
villages except Hari and Tajang. Syn: ama.
ane vt-r. to provide packing or support to join
or mend something.
ani n. (Bot.)fruit
bud; fertilized flower bud that matures
into a fruit. Taku
ani lindoku. A small bud of cucumber has appeared.
anii [´a:ni] n. mother (term of reference). anii-chin. stepmother; woman who has married
one's father after the death of, or divorce from one's natural mother. anii-aban. parents (term of reference); mom and dad. Syn: ane-aba. anii-akhan.
general term of respect for married female adults. anii-ohon. mother and child (term of reference only).
anii-oho sii pe
ha? Are they mother and son?
n. leaf.Var: yanii. Anii taye/tahe. One leaf.
n. one who comes (unspecified). aniibon. the one who comes (specified).
n. hurry; haste.
n. 1. coming; state of coming. 2. coming back; return. uyi aniin [´ui´a:nĩ] n. spirit possession (lit. 'coming of a spirit').
ano [´a´no]adv. very.ano lamaadv. seldom. Mo ano lama pasu ke kheta puridu nii.
He/she seldom reads books.
ano [´a´no:]vt-r. to sting, as of a plant. Ngiimi sari anobiine. I got stung by a *sari tree. See: pano.
ano vt-r. to apply, as ointment.
anu [´a´nu] n. 1. younger brother (male speaking). 2. younger sister (female speaking). 3. term of reference for brother's son
(male speaking). 4. more
generally, all males that are considered by a male speaker as his
classificatory younger brothers (e.g. one's father's
brother's son if
he is younger to him). 5. more
generally, all females that are considered by a female speaker as her
classificatory younger sisters (e.g. one's father's brother's
if she is younger to her). anu-abann. brothers (term of reference for male
representatives of one's kindred, i.e. brothers, paternal cousins and uncles). anu-ami n. sisters (term of reference for female
representatives of one's kindred). anu-barmiin. younger siblings in general; (by
extension) juniors. Ant: ate-ata.
anyan [a´ɲã] n:time 1. year. Anyan-nyannge. One year. Ronnge anyan ho, .... One year, ...
Hiika anyan ho,.... Those years, ... 2. season.
anye [´aɲe] n:num. two. Gramm: when referring to a particular object. When
enumerating only, as in school, *anyi is used in place of *anye.
1. n:num. two. Gramm: when enumerating only, without reference to a
particular object. 2. n:qual.
both. Gramm: qualifying noun following a noun or a personal
pronoun, giving the sense 'both' or 'both of'. Molu
anyi. Both of them. Ngo siika anyi
agin ho inbolakinma. I can't go along with them. See: nyi.
anyinn. 1. (Anat.) breast. 2. milk. Opi ka anii
momi anyin asinlado.
Opi's mother is breastfeeding her daughter [lit. 'is feeding her with
milk']. anyin-nyimpern. (Anat.) nipple; teat. Etym: from *anyin 'milk', *aper 'pimple'.
anyo vt-r. to observe a ritual proscription or abstinence
(from work, certain foods, fresh green vegetables, etc.). Uyi miisu lala ngunu anyodoran ke, haman diikinma. We are still observing abstinence after performing a ritual, we cannot eat vegetables.
anyovt-r. to flatter or cajole someone, as in order to win favour. Opi aba mi sotegii ya pa la anyodo. Opi cajoles her father into playing with her.
a'nga [a´ŋa]1. n. sheaf.
2.vt-r. to bundle up; to tie into bundle with a rope, thread,
etc.; to wrap something up in a packet. Syn: nga.
a'nga [a:´ŋa:]n. term used to address a child
affectionately. Syn: ii'nga.
apa [a´pa]vt-r. to give up; to leave; to disregard. Apato! Leave it!
apa adj. (esp. of bamboo) immature. Bije apa. Immature
apa-amaadj. innocent; naive; artless. Usage: generally used in a negative sense.
apan kemann. (Zool.) variety of large dragonfly .
apen. collection of loose soil at the entry of burrows. Var: apii. Usage: Bulla.
aper [a´pər] n. 1. any solid object more or less spherical
in shape.2. pimple,
pustule, or similar small, rounded swelling of the skin. 3. (Anat.) small
dark, sack-like appendix of the liver, the size and shape of which is of
particular significance in liver divination. aper tado tasan n. variety of necklace worn by women,
made of small roundish yellow beads . See: akho tado tasan.
n. (Anat.) body fluid, in general.
api alan. 1. body fluid, as of the serum contained in a blister. 2. sap.
[´api:] vt-r. to dry. Syn: pi. Tarii mi nula lala danyi ho apito. Dry the shirt under the sun after washing! Emo mi danyi ho ayakiilin apito. Dry the rice properly under the sun!
api [api:]vt-r. to rub a blade or a tool either to sharpen it or to blunt it
with stone, iron, or some other hard material. Ilyo apidu ha? Do you rub your machete? Syn: pi.
api [a´pi] vt-r. to lay on the
floor, as of a mattress,
cloth, etc. Pulye apito. Lay the cloth on the floor! Var: apyu.
api vt-r. to break small, usually rounded
objects by dropping,
as when dropping an egg. Papu mi apibiidu ha? Did you break an egg? Syn: apu.
apivt-r. to feed (birds and fowls).
api-ara n. clapping. Ngarkalyi hoka api-ara pikinnii,
ngiika ane. It's my mother who shares her joy with me when I
apin [a´pĩ]n. 1. cooked rice. 2. (by extension) meal. Nunupa ngo apin miibiidu. I have prepared a meal for you. Aro apin
diitiiku ha? Did you have your breakfast? Anyo Opi mi apin bilado. Anyo is
giving food to Opi.
apin binii n. part of the betrothal ceremony, when the bride's parents arrange a lunch party for the declaration
of engagement. Syn: mabo apin binii; mabo inchinii. apin
dii [a´pĩ di]vcn. to
have a meal; to eat. Apin diisa kan. Dining table si jotodo
ke. Let's have meal! It's ready on the
dining table. apin diigo [a´pĩ digo]n. meal.
apin hurta [a´pĩ hur´ta:] n. wooden board used for draining rice
while cooking. apin piichan [a´pĩ pi´tɕã] n. pot used for cooking rice. apin
piichan miidu [a´pĩ pi´tɕã´mi´du]n. dinner time (lit. 'rice cooking time',
usually in late afternoon). apin piiha [a´pĩ pi´ha:] n. bamboo basket used as lid to cover the rice pot (*apin piichan).
apin [a´pĩ]vt-r. to warm one's hands close to
the fire. Etym: from *lapin, 'back of the hand'. Lakhiido la, ala mi yamu ho iche apintalyi. It's cold, I'll warm my hands by the fire.
apii [a´pi] n.
1. arrow, in
general 2. bamboo-tipped arrow, unbarbed,
consisting of a rounded shaft with a pointed tip, having no separate
head.Var: apu. apii-age n. quiver. Var: apu-age. apii-alyi n. 1. bow and
arrow. 2. ritual element of sacrificial
altars imitating a bow and an arrow . apii-piitun. iron point of an arrow. Var:
apu-putu. morto apiin. iron-tipped bamboo arrow. Var: morto-apu. Encycl: Tanii arrows are
feathered with finely cut letches (*murto) and, in case of iron-headed
arrows, sometimes poisoned with aconite (*iimyo).
breadth. apii-aso n. size, in terms of area. ajin apiin. circle of friends. ari apiin. neighbourhood.
(Anat.) torso; trunk of the body. Syn: au-apo. 2. (Bot.) trunk, as of a tree.
apovi. 1. to
come into. 2. to come in front. 3. to come out in open. Mo apo? Did he/she
apo khenvt. to toil; to labour (soil, field). Construction labourers
atan si achi apo khennyado. These construction labourers are working
very hard. Syn: khen.
apu [a´pu:] n. flower. apu puniinn. state of
apun. globe; sphere.
apu n. (Anat.) covering layer of a tissue;
membrane. apu alu-naniin. (Anat.) placenta.
apu [´apu] vt-r. to wrap up. Siika apple simi
apu-nanii pa ngoya ako bipe. Give me
something to wrap this apple.Yo mi yanii ho apubiitoku. I wrapped up some meat into a leaf. apu-alunaniin. any soft material (paper, leaves,
etc.) used for packing or wrapping up something. apu-naniin.
apuvi. to come inadvertently or by mistake.
apu gyahen. (of a house structure) ceiling joists,
with ceiling battens (*manko) running the opposite way.
apu kaiadj. (of a person, esp. a girl) showy.
apunn. group. Hiimkane taroje miyu apun ho ngo ananma. I don't want to go into such a large crowd.
apun-akan. confusion; doubt; hesitancy.
apur [a´pur]vt. to break by letting or making
something fall (e.g. an egg). Bottle mi apurloto. Drop the bottle (and break it)! Syn: hupur.
apyan. 1.tracks made by small animals. See: bupya. 2.tracks made by small rodents. Usage: Bulla.
apyaLand of the dead for persons who died by commiting suicide. apya ho adv.loc. 1. in the midst of. Tare apya ho. In the midst of thorny plants. 2. (used in a figurative sense) in the middle of nowhere. Mo apya ho dapa da. He/she's living without any purpose/activity.
apyaadv. on the air; above the ground level
(in air on in water). apya
to swim. Usage: Bulla,
Hija. Kiije, kiile ho apya tatesa. Let's go
swimming in the
apyovi. to come first; to come earlier. Tamo, Pussang mi
apyokiinento. No agoyo. Tamo, let Pussang come first. Don't come before
apyo [a´pjo:]vt-r. to
dilute by mixing with water or other liquid. Yasi iche apyoto. Dilute by adding a little water.
1. adj. easy to come; comfortable to come. 2. vi. to feel free to come; to come easily.
apyun pyunngeda. There is one [hanging] bunch of bananas.
aravt-r. to bind or tie, esp. bundles of
firewood or things of relatively large size. Syn: ra.
n. bottom of a tree or a bamboo. Hiika bije si aran ho pato. Cut at the bottom of that bamboo! Ant: mitu. ali-arann. (Anat.) base of the foot and leg. ali-aran
on the ground.
adj. 1. deep,
as of a river. Syn: uran.
2. (of relationship) intimate; close. Ajin aran. Intimate
arbin. particular cut of meat of the
pig sacrificed at *Myoko. Describes the backbone starting
from hips which is cut into two pieces longitudinally up to and
including the first
rib. Encycl: one part is given to the eldest female representative (*ami akha)
of the lineage (*uru) of the household head, the other to
the eldest female
representative of his wife's lineage .
archivt. to roll. Var: archii.
arda [arda] n:time tomorrow.Arda Ziro
ho Governor akindo. Tomorrow the Governor will come to Ziro.
arda alyinn:time tomorrow
evening. arda-rida n:time in future. Usage: used for
counting an unspecified number od days, months or years. Arda-rida ngo Thailand
inchi. I will visit Thailand in future. Syn: arida.
arda ayo n:time tomorrow night.
are adj. sharp, as of a blade; sharp-edged.
arejaadj. sharpest. areyaadj. sharper.
are adj. loose.
are vt. to wash, esp. the interior of a dish or pot. Piichan mi areto. Wash this pot!
areniin n. (of a blade) sharpness.
arhan [arhã] vt-r. to block off; to put something over or into the mouth of
something, so as to obstruct it. Sudu mi arhanto. Cover the bamboo container! arhan-naniin. cork.
arhi [ar´hi]vr. to choke. Iche-iche diito, arhikodii ke. Eat small quantities, [or] you may get choked on your food!
ari [ari]n. border, limit of an area. ari-apii [ari api]n. neigbourhood. Ari-apii daka
miyu atan. The people in the neighbourhood.
ari [´a´ri] 1. price,
esp. of land. 2. bride price; gift
presented during a wedding ceremony either to the bride's or the groom's
Usage: Hari. Syn: barmii ari. ari bonii n. groom's friends who accompany the
groom to the bride's house at the wedding. ari diinii n. recipient of an *ari gift (litt.
'one who eats a gift/price') Syn: ari pakonii. ari mechuSee: mechu ari.
ari paniin Formal
presentation by the bridegroom or his parents to the bride's kinsmen. Usually consists of a
full-grown mithun or the cash equivalent of a mithun. The bride's
kinsmen later reciprocate by performing several ceremonies such as
piniin, *mida miiniin, *eli baniin/badu etc. Var:ari panii.ari ponyo n. 1. particular part of the bride price,
which two selected persons
belonging to the bride's close kin are entitled to
receive. Either a
brother or first paternal cousin of the bride, a member of the
bride's patrilineage (*uru) or a person not belonging to the bride's clan. Usage:
Bulla. Syn: mechu ari; ari
mechu. Usage: Hari, Hija.2.by
recipients of that part of the bride price known as *ponyo. Altogether with *diiran and *lache,
they are in
charge of assisting the bride during the wedding and later the married
the duration of her marriage. ari rutu n. rice given by the bride's parents to
the groom's family before marriage. Var: ari riitu. barmii arin. bride price. Barmi ari mi uru
ho pebine. The bride price was distributed among the lineage members.dachi arin. formal
presented to the bride's
parents in the context of dachi mida*, or ordinary marriage. datii arin. formal gift/bride price presented to the bride's parents in the
context of datii mida*, or large-sized marriage. diipa arin. part of the marriage ceremony, a
symbolic reciprocation made by the bride's family for the bride price
(*ari) previously received from the groom's family. Syn: diipa.
arin. saw. From: Hindi 'ari'.
ari [a´ri:] vt-r. 1. to
string together (as beads in a necklace). 2. to stitch. ari-rigon. stitching work. Pulye ari-rigo
hii doran. Stitching work remains to be done on [this] cloth. 3. to sew. Syn: ri.
arivi. to come in turn. Mulan aribiila ato. Come one by one!
arivt-r. to lay the foundations of a building.
arida [arida] adv. in future. Usage: used for counting an
unspecified number od days, months or years. Syn: arda-rida.
broken or shattered; brittle;
arii n. (of cattle, rhino, etc.) horn. arii
molan n.(Bot.) variety of red, non edible berry. arii
n. 1. horn and forehead of cattle. 2. (Bot.) variety of plant which is eaten by
1. bundle, esp. of bamboo. Syn: bije
arii. 2. to
bind, esp. bundles of bamboo. Syn: rii.
arjin [ardʑĩ] vi-r. 1. to straighten up. 2. to stretch one' body, for relaxing or when feeling tired. Arjinlyi ho ahu hii hempyoyado. One feels better when stretching one's body.
arkii vt. to bind, as with a cane rope
(*yaso). Inka taru simi arkiito. Bind this rope!
Usage: Hija. Var: akii.Usage: Bulla. Syn: karki.
bolt. Alye simi arkototiika aha. I think you should bolt this door. Nesu alye mi arkoto. Lock up the granary door! Var: ako. arko-naniin. wooden lock of a
door. Var: ako-nanii.
arkhu [ar´xu]vr. 1. to belch; to burp (after having ingested food or drink). 2. (by a baby) to regurgitate. Anga arkhubiido. The
baby has regurgitated. Var: akhu.
to chew or eat; firm, as overcooked meat. Sii alyo byakhannii
ano arledo. Overburn skin of cow is very hard to eat/chew.
arme n. term of address used reciprocally by two persons having the same name. For example, Mr. Koj Byai and Mr. Chiging Byai may address each other as *arme.
armin adj. ripe.
n. name. Niika armyan niihii la pe/Niika armyan
nii la? What is your name? Ngiika armyan hii Tatu/Ngiika armyan Tatu
hiila. My name is Tatu.
(Bot.) to grow, as of an offshoot or juvenile plant; to emerge from a tree stump or a rhizome.
arna n. particular cut of meat
of the pig sacrificed for *Myoko, consisting of a strip of skin
and fat cut from the base of the neck, running through the middle
stomach till the posterior end. Encycl: traditionally the
person in charge of the funerals. Nowadays most often the *kiidii
bulyan or a stranger to the community specially appointed for this duty,
is entitled to receive that share .
arnii [ar´ni] vt-r. to swallow. Aga arniito. Swallow quicky! Ato Piilo mi
tatii arniibiido ke! The (Solar) frog is eating the Moon!(traditional way for interpreting and
indicating a lunar eclipse).
aro [´aro] n:time morning.Aro-roye. One morning. aro apin n. morning meal; breakfast. aro jimi
dawn; morning twilight (lit.'hazy
morning'). Ant: alyin jimi jama. aro konchi n:time early morning; dawn. aro konchi hoadvphr. early in the morning; at dawn.
aro [´aro] n. (Anat.)1. vein. 2. ligament; tendon. Aro horjin la ngiika
ali tuhii-tukhelama. I strained a ligament so I cannot move my leg.
aroadj. lucky. Ant: abur/abu.
aro [a´ro] 1. n. poverty.2. adj. poor. Syn: aro-atu.
Ant: mingo. aroja adj. poorest. Ant: mingoja. aroyaadj. poorer; becoming poorer. Ant: mingoya. aro yama n. poor people.
arovt-r. to feel
or express sympathy for someone; to
aro pacho interj. Thank you. Syn: paya-pacho;
paya aro pacho.
aro kapainterj. Aya!
Usage: interjection used to
express sympathy towards someone who is hurt. Syn: aro kapa ela.
raw meat. Var: aper.
arpiin. 1. (Agr.)
horizontal bamboo or wooden pole holding a wall or a fence. 2. ritual
element of sacrificial altars imitating an *arpii.
arpu n. group. arpu ho post. amongst, amidst.
portion; part. 2. moment; instant. arta
hopost. on the instant;
immediately; right now; right away; instantly. Biilyo luko-lumyomapa, siisi arta ho niimi no hokii
tiiko labitalyi? You did not tell me in advance yesterday, from where
shall I give you money right now? artahe
paadv. for a time;
temporarily; for the time being. Ngiimi niika
tarii mi siisi artahe pa kontii bilya pe. Give me your cloth only for a
artinn. (Anat.)testicle, including scrotum.
artin kuvcn. to castrate, esp. pigs.
artu n. (Anat.)
gizzard of a bird.
aru adj. coarse (not fine). Ant: amii.
arun. 1. weeds, esp. those found in paddy fields
(as opposed to *tami). 2. (in a figurative sense) any small thing that disturbs and area of make it look badly. aru
to weed. Syn: aru
ho. No aji mi hapahe, aru holobiidoku ah cho lo. Oh, you have done
almost all the weeding work of paddy field.
arun. 1. (Bot.) husk, as of maize, etc.; very thin
layer of bark on a corn/maize ear or a stalk of bamboo. Tanyi aru. Maize husk. Byapu aru. Outer layer of a bamboo shoot. 2. (of bees, wasps, etc.) hive . Tayu-yutii aru. Hornet hive.
arun [arũ] n. vicinity; nearby area. arun ho [arũ ´ho] 1. post. near; beside; adjoining, abut, next to.
Mope dukan arun ho. Near Mope's shop. 2. adv. nearby. Syn: arun so. Arun-are so restaurant nyima sii ha?
Inka arun so ako do. Isn't there any restaurant around? There is one at
that corner. inka arun
around here. No bus jalo tempo
latulakindo. Hiika atan inka arun so domodu. You can take a bus or a
tempo. They stop over here. arun-are soadvphr. around;
nearby. Arun-are so restaurant nyima sii ha? Isn't there any
restaurant around here? lenda arun n. roadside.
asa adj. (esp. of vegetables) crude in taste
and appearance, as
when the season has
asan [a´sã]n. north. asan dalyi 1. n. northern
direction. 2. adv. towards
the north; in a northward
asanvt-r. to laud; to congratulate; to commend
the worh of; to extol.
asaniin n. future.
ase [´ase]vt-r. to wash, esp. clothing. Siika yo mi aseto. Wash this meat!
sharp piece of wood or bamboo; splinter
asin. (of an animal) den; lair; nest.
asi-asivi. (of a plural subject) to come
continuously and regularly, one by one.
asin [asĩ] vt-r. to nourish someone with liquid
or semi-liquid foods; to
serve someone a drink. Syn: sin. anyin asinvt-r. to
breastfeed. Opi ka anii
momi anyin asinlado.
Opi's mother is breastfeeding her daughter.
asii [a:si] n. line. Asii rigo hii doran.
There is still a
line to be drawn. Var: ashii.
asii [´a´si]vt-r. to bite. Momi aki asiibiine. He/she was bitten by a dog.
asii sarinn. (Med.) asthma.
ason. 1. one of the two subdivisions, halves or moieties of the Apatani
society, each comprised of several villages. 2. (of a party) supporter. Encycl:
traditionally the Apatani society as a whole was divided into two *aso:
*Diibo asso and *Tin
asso, mainly for ritual purposes. During *Myoko festival, only
friends (*khiibo ajin) from the villages of the same *aso were
invited, and for certain *Murun celebrations the participants to a
procession (*penii) could
rest only on *lapan of the villages of their own *aso. In olden days,
disputes involving people of one *aso might only be
settled by the *bulyan of that *aso, whereas disputes between members
of two *aso would be settled by *bulyan of both *aso. Diibo ason. moiety comprising the villages of
Hari, Kalung, Duta, Mudang-Tage and Bamin-Michi. Tin aso n. moiety comprising the villages of
Reru, Tajang, Hija and Hong. Var: asho. aso piilavcn. to seek support.
aso [´aso:] vt-r. to rear; to bring up by nurturing. Usage: Hija. Aki asosa. Let's feed the dog. No nii ali-aho
asodu? What crops do you grow?
asoniinn. rearing; nurturing. Var: ashoniin.
asu 1. n.
(Agr.) chaffy grain; infertile plant (that has
failed to fruit and produce grain). 2.
adj. chaffy, as a grain; failed, as of a
grain or crop. Siika emo si asudo. This rice is
failed/of poor quality. 3. adj. sterile, of a woman; barren; infertile. Usage:
becoming obsolete. Ant:
abin. 4. adj.
fruitless; vain. asu-asapaadv. fruitlessly; in vain. Ngiika
kiiran-ranjo hii asu-asapa ke
inpane nii. My hard work went fruitless.
1. vi-r. to be or
become lazy.Mo asurido. He/she starts
becoming lazy.2. adj. lazy; idle; bored. Syn:
asu alii. Mo niimpa asu-aliidu? Why is
he/she lazy?Var: asu ale.Usage:
laziest. asuyaadj. lazier.
asuvi-r. to cough.
asunii [´asu:ni]n. lazy person (unspecified); one
who is lazy.
pron. the lazy one (specified).
n. term used by a
male speaker to address his 1. elder sister. 2. paternal or maternal aunt and their
daughters. 3. paternal or
maternal grandaunt and their daughters. 4. sister-in-law(spouse's sister). 5.
More generally, any woman of the speaker's *uru older than him, and any
woman older than the speaker whom the speaker wishes to respectfully
n. term used by a male speaker for
referring to an elder
sister, real or classificatory. Encycl: this kin category
includes for a male Ego, besides his real elder sisters, all consanguines
whom he addresses as his '*ata' (elder sister), e.g. his wife's
atan [atã] 1.
group; crowd.Ngo siika atan lo
aji ronnge miibokokindo. I shall require help from that group once in
my field. 2. n:qual. group. Gramm: plural qualifying noun following a noun or the first element
of a split demonstrative, adjective or pronoun, indicative of a plural
sense. May occur in both definite and indefinite sentences,
often but not necessarily combined with demonstratives. Yagii
atan simi lato. Take these baskets! Hiika
hime atan hii khelido. Those kids are playing.No bus jalo tempo
latulakindo. Hiika atan inka arun so domodu. You can take a bus or a
tempo. They stop over here.Alyi
ka nyago hii ano alerdo. Pigs have very powerful snouts. Suitcase ho tarii
atan mi santi la saliito. Pack your shirts tightly in the suitcase! Var: achin. Usage: Hong.Miyu achin si ado. Some people are coming. See: -lu.
ate [´a:te] n. term of address for1. elder brother. 2. paternal uncle (father's brother) 3. paternal grandfather's brother. 4. father's brother's son (older than the speaker). 5. mother's sister's son (older than the
More generally, any male of the speaker's *uru older than him or her,
and any man older than the speaker whom the speaker wishes to
address. ate-atan. elders. Ant: anu-barmii.
ate adj. (esp. of liquids) thick; condensed;
atebo [´a:tebo]n. term of reference for an elder
brother, real or classificatory. Encycl: this kin category
includes for an Ego, besides his real elder brothers, all consanguines
addresses as his '*ate' (elder brother), e.g. his paternal uncle. Biilyo ngo ngiika
atebo mi kariidu pa railway
station ho ate. Yesterday I went to pick up my elder brother at the
railway station. Mo ngiika atebo ako ka
oho. He is the son of one of my paternal uncles.
atii [a´ti:]vt-r. to keep; to put; to store. No nona ngiika diiri
mi atiito nii? Where did you put/keep my belongings? Aber kone
da atiisiito, kapakuma. I kept that somewhere, but couldn't find it. Var: atu. Usage: Bulla.
atiibivt-r. to keep/store something for someone.
Niimi pe siika
anyi pa atiibichi nii? Which one shall we keep for them?
n. storage. Emo atiiniin. Rice storage.
ato [´a:to] n. term
of address for 1.
grandfather (paternal and maternal). 2. father-in-law (spouse's father). 3. spouse's
grandfather. 4. spouse's
brother (if of the father's generation). 5.
wife's nephew. ato-ayon. grandparents. akha-ato n. great grandfather.
ato n. owner, as of a property. Aji (ka) ato. Paddy
field owner. Tamo siika ude ka ato. Tamo is the owner of this house.
ato [´ato] n:qual.
self; own; oneself; by
qualifying noun following a noun or a pronoun, used to indicate
one's own person or one's own thing in the possessive sense. Refers to one single person or object. May also stand for a singular
reflexive noun (myself; yourself; himself; herself;
itself; oneself), depending on the context. Often
occurs together with reflexive suffix *-sii/-su located at the end
of the predicate suffix chain, prior to the tense markers. Ato abi-tarii mi
Wear your own cloth! No ato duko ho duto. You sit in your own place! Ato miisuto. Do it
yourself! Mo inkiiso ato chasutalyi. He/she will climb there himself/herself. Ngunu
ato ganda mi, ayapa kalyan-talyanbiido koda sii ano ayakendo nii. If we
take good care of Ziro by ourselves, that will be very nice. ato-aton:qual. selves; own; selves; our/your/their own. Gramm: qualifying
noun following a noun or a pronoun, used to indicate one's own
person or one's own thing in
the possessive sense. Refers to a plurality of persons or objects. May also stand for a plural
reflexive noun (ourselves;
yourselves; themselves). Often occurs with associated suffix
*-sii/-su. Kone-abi ato-ato duko
ho duto. Everybody sit in your own place. Ato-ato mi
lukosiisa. Let's talk about ourselves! Ato-ato mi lukosiisa!
Let's introduce ourselves!ato-min.
relatives and non-relatives (guests, outsiders, etc.). Ato-mi henma pa
yo ayin-ayin bito, mi lo mii'ngu-miiredo hiila henkodiike.
Give meat equal to both the relatives and the other
guests, so that
the latter may not feel being discriminated.
of reference for 1. grandfather (paternal and maternal). 2. father-in-law (spouse's father). 3. spouse's grandfather. 4. spouse's brother (if of the father's
generation). 5. wife's nephew.
atoka [´atoka] n.
noun used to indicate one's own person
or one's own thing in the
possessive sense. Atoka bije-more so abuyapa
bije/sanii alyibiisa. Let's plant more bamboos and trees in our forests!
atu n. (Anat.) vagina; vulv.
atu n. fee paid on borrowed items or money;
compensation to the lender; interest.
atu 1. n. (of humans)
progeny; decendant(s); person (as member of a
descent group). No Tanii atu sii
nyan ah? Iin, ngo Tanii atu sii cho. You're an Apatani if I'm not
mistaken? Yes, I 'm an Apatani. 2. n. (of animals) litter. Aki si
moka atu mi lyahi-lyasobiida. The dog is licking its puppy. 3. adj. small; short. Ngo hime atu kone kapato. I saw a small
child. Ant: kahe/kaye. atujaadj. smallest. atuya adj. smaller. atu-kahe n. size (how big or small something is).Var: atu kaye. atu mii vca. to reduce the size of something;
to make something smaller. atu sanii n.
small tree; shrub.
atu [a´tu]vr. to close (a container, tube, etc.)
with a lid, cork, or the like. Hubur mi atubiilyato ah. You should close/obstruct the field outlet. atu-naniin.
atuvi. to come for the first time. No so atupa po adu
nii? Are you coming here for the first time?
au [´a´u] n. body, esp. human body. Si iche diito, au pa ayado. Have a taste of this, it's
good for your body! See: apo.
au aranphr. (of a person) naked. au giigya n.
(Anat.) waist (of
aya [aja]adj. good; nice; well. Hime
aya. Good boy. Ayado! Good! No ayasiido
ha? How are you (doing)? Ngo siisi ayasiidoku ke. Now I am (feeling)
alright.Bilo anyan ho,
aba-apa atan hii bije-siiko mi ano aya butii. In the past our ancestors took good care of the bamboo groves. ayaja adj. best; the best. Kago ayajado. Kago is
the best. ayapa [aja´pa] adv.1. well; nicely. Ayapa ato. Welcome! 2. good-looking, as of a man; handsome. Mo miyu pa hemper yapa
ayapa da. He is a very handsome young man. ayayaadj.
better. Ane mi ayayanii hokii
nyima. No one is better than my mother. Ngunu Tanii pa
lusudo koda ayayakindo ke ah. That will be better if we speak in Apatani. aya kachon. quality (how good or bad something is).
n. (Anat.) muscle; flesh (human or
animal); meat (boneless). Syn: aya-yapu.
ayi [a´ji:] vt-r. to put (rice) to the mouth. Apin gonnge
ayisiito. Put one handful of rice to the mouth! Panyi gonnge
ayigiito. Take one mouthful of small rice grains!
ayi-achav. to pay a visit.
ayi magyan n. pole made of *kiira tree used to carry pigs to the sacrificial altar (*Myoko yugyan) during *Myoko festival. Later the same post is used to erect *danyi agyan .
ayin n. gold or golden metal.
ayin See: ahin.
ayin vi. (of a plural subject) to come together.
ayo [´a:jo] n. term of address for 1. grandmother (paternal and maternal). 2. mother-in-law (spouse's mother). 3. spouse's
grandmother. 4. spouse's
brother's wife (if of the father's generation). 5. all female in-laws of the generation preceding that of the
ayo [´ajo]n:time. 1. night;
night time. 2. night cycle. Ayo-yoye/yohe. One
yoye, Manu hende-hende hela, imitalyiku la
biidi ako hempatii. One night, Manu kept thinking over and
over, and as she was about to sleep she imagined a plan. ayo-ayon:time. every night. ayo hoadvphr. in the night. ayo-yolyann:time. late night.
ayo [a´yo] 1. n. upper/higher level or place. 2. adj. upper. 3. adv. up (upstair; upslope; uphill; etc.). Syn: haho. Ant: akan.
ayo hopost. on; at the top of.ayojaadj. uppermost. ayoyaadj. upper.
ayo asin. ancestors. Var: ayo-ashi.
ayo-asi menduvcn. ritual performed to placate ancestral souls when they are believed to trouble
their surviving kinsmen for not having treated them well during their
lifetime and request some reparation. Var: ayo-ashi mendu.
ayobon. term of reference for 1. grandmother. 2. mother-in-law (spouse's mother). 3. spouse's grandmother. 4. spouse's brother's wife (if of the
father's generation). 5. all female in-laws of the generation
preceding that of the speaker.
ayu [ayu:]n. traditional
chants performed by males in context of
verbal competition or antiphonal singing; oral tradition in song form. Syn: ayu-bari.
ayu [a´yu:] adj. old; olden. ayu hoadvphr. in olden days. Ayu anyan ho... Long
time ago... (lit.
'in olden years')... Ayu hoka Tanii aba-apa atan hii.. The Apatani ancestors
of olden days... ayumadaadv. 1.
(referring to an event in the past) recently. No ayumada Itanagar
tone pe la hento nii, hiira tochinkiilyi po? You have been to Itanagar
recently, are you going again? 2. (referring to an event in the
future) soon. Var: ayimada. Syn: ayumaran; ayumapa. Kere talo
si yalo bidonii, ayumapa tachenedo. There is a
slight crack running along the mirror, it may soon break. Var: ayimapa